Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss
Indicator Nota Unit Data Source Detailed results Download Methodology
Latest period Latest data Base period Base data
Target 15.1 By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements
Indicator 15.1.1 Forest area as a proportion of total land area
Forest area in proportion to total area 1 Percentage 2018 36.48 2015 36.44 MTED Inventario Forestal Nacional Metodología
Indicator 15.1.2 Proportion of important sites for terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity that are covered by protected areas, by ecosystem type
Proportion of sites that are important for terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity that are covered by protected areas, on farmland 2 Percentage 2017 16.69 MTED Espacios Naturales o de Interés Metodología
Proportion of important sites that are important for terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity that are covered by protected areas, in forests 2 Percentage 2017 47.65 MTED Espacios Naturales o de Interés Metodología
Proportion of sites that are important for terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity that are covered by protected areas, in pastures 2 Percentage 2017 30.91 MTED Espacios Naturales o de Interés Metodología
Proportion of sites that are important for terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity that are covered by protected areas, in other types of lands 2 Percentage 2017 2.00 MTED Espacios Naturales o de Interés Metodología
Proportion of sites that are important for terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity that are covered by protected areas, in settlements 2 Percentage 2017 0.62 MTED Espacios Naturales o de Interés Metodología
Proportion of sites that are important for terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity that are covered by protected areas, in wetlands 2 Percentage 2017 2.13 MTED Espacios Naturales o de Interés Metodología
Target 15.2 By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally
Indicator 15.2.1 Progress towards sustainable forest management
Forest area with a sustainable forest management planning instrument in force, in hectares Hectares 2018 5,167,697 2015 4,611,684 MTED Estadística sobre Gestión Forestal Sostenible Metodología
Forest area with a sustainable forest management planning instrument in force, as % Percentage 2018 18.48 2015 16.58 MTED Estadística sobre Gestión Forestal Sostenible Metodología
Target 15.3 By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world
Indicator 15.3.1 Proportion of land that is degraded over total land area
Proporción de tierra degradada en relación con la superficie total de tierra 3 Percentage 2018 18.2 2015 18.2 MITECO Operación no perteneciente al Plan Estadístico Nacional
Target 15.4 By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development
Indicator 15.4.1 Coverage by protected areas of important sites for mountain biodiversity
Places important for mountain biodiversity that are covered by protected areas, farmland 2 Percentage 2017 6.12 MTED Espacios Naturales o de Interés Metodología
Places important for mountain biodiversity that are covered by protected areas, in forests 2 Percentage 2017 55.10 MTED Espacios Naturales o de Interés Metodología
Places important for mountain biodiversity that are covered by protected areas, in pastures 2 Percentage 2017 35.15 MTED Espacios Naturales o de Interés Metodología
Places important for mountain biodiversity that are covered by protected areas, in other types of land 2 Percentage 2017 2.62 MTED Espacios Naturales o de Interés Metodología
Places important for mountain biodiversity that are covered by protected areas, in settlements 2 Percentage 2017 0.34 MTED Espacios Naturales o de Interés Metodología
Places important for mountain biodiversity that are covered by protected areas, in wetlands 2 Percentage 2017 0.68 MTED Espacios Naturales o de Interés Metodología
Indicator 15.4.2 Mountain Green Cover Index
Mountain Green Cover Index Index 2018 97.22 MTED Espacios Naturales o de Interés Metodología
Target 15.5 Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species
Indicator 15.5.1 Red List Index
Red List Index (total) 4 Index 2019 0.89 MTED Estadística de Diversidad de Especies Silvestres Metodología
Red List Index (amphibians) Index 2019 0.86 MTED Estadística de Diversidad de Especies Silvestres Metodología
Red List Index (birds) Index 2019 0.96 MTED Estadística de Diversidad de Especies Silvestres Metodología
Red List Index (invertebrates) Index 2019 0.81 MTED Estadística de Diversidad de Especies Silvestres Metodología
Red List Index (mammals) Index 2019 0.93 MTED Estadística de Diversidad de Especies Silvestres Metodología
Red List Index (fish) Index 2019 0.95 MTED Estadística de Diversidad de Especies Silvestres Metodología
Red List Index (non-vascular flora) Index 2019 0.72 MTED Estadística de Diversidad de Especies Silvestres Metodología
Red List Index (vascular flora) Index 2019 0.86 MTED Estadística de Diversidad de Especies Silvestres Metodología
Red List Index (reptiles) Index 2019 0.79 MTED Estadística de Diversidad de Especies Silvestres Metodología
Target 15.8 By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species
Indicator 15.8.1 Proportion of countries adopting relevant national legislation and adequately resourcing the prevention or control of invasive alien species
Spain has relevant national legislation and has allocated sufficient resources for the prevention or control of invasive alien species 3 2019 SI 2007 NO MITECO Operación no perteneciente al Plan Estadístico Nacional
Target 15.9 By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts
15.9.1 Progress towards national targets established in accordance with Aichi Biodiversity Target 2 of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011¿2020
Spain has established national goals in accordance with the second Aichi Target of the Strategic Plan for Biological Diversity 2011-2020 or similar goals in its national biodiversity strategies and action plans and has reported on its progress in achieving these goals 3 2019 SI 2015 NO MITECO Operación no perteneciente al Plan Estadístico Nacional
Spain has integrated biodiversity into national accounting and reporting systems, defined as implementation of the Environmental and Economic Accounting System 3 2019 NO 2015 NO MITECO Operación no perteneciente al Plan Estadístico Nacional
Target 15.a Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems
Indicator 15.a.1 Official development assistance and public expenditure on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystems
Official development assistance and public spending for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystems 5 Euros 2017 2,179,588.88 MAUC Estadística de Ayuda Oficial al Desarrollo (AOD) de España Metodología
Target 15.b Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance such management, including for conservation and reforestation
Indicator 15.b.1 Official development assistance and public expenditure on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystems
Official development assistance and public spending for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystems 5 Euros 2017 2,179,588.88 MAUC Estadística de Ayuda Oficial al Desarrollo (AOD) de España Metodología
  1. https://www.miteco.gob.es/es/biodiversidad/temas/inventarios-nacionales/iepnb_2017_1ecosistemas_tcm30-486512.pdf
  2. Data referring to December
  3. Administrative data not belonging to the National Statistical Plan
  4. The indicator is based on a theoretical calculation of how far we are from the extinction of our species. To do so, it compares the number of species in each threat-category weighting each category by a weight (ranging from 1 for "near threatened" to 5 "extinct") under the hypothesis that all species were extinct. To make it "positive", the indicator is presented as the difference with 1. That is, how close we are to full conservation. Thus, the closer to 1, the better the conservation status of the set of species, and the closer to 0, the closer they are to extinction. For the calculation of this indicator it is therefore basic to have established threat-categories according to IUCN methodology; being an SDG indicator, IUCN global threat-categories have been used, which enables not only comparisons with other countries but also periodic repetitions and the ability to establish a trend for the species considered, by keeping the lists of Global UICN threat-categories updated.
  5. ODA only: CRS 41030- Biodiversity; CRS 31220-Forest Development