Cifras INE

Sustainable Development Goals (1/17)

1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere.

On 25 September 2015, the United Nations General Assembly adopted Resolution A/RES/70/1 "Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development", which established 17 goals and 169 targets. Subsequently, in its Resolution A/RES/71/313, the General Assembly adopted the global indicator framework for SDG and stressed that official statistics and data from national statistical systems should constitute the necessary basis for the global indicator framework.

In 2017, the INE launched a new statistic called "Indicators of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development". This statistic, which is produced in collaboration with the statistical services of the ministries, was included in the National Statistical Plan in 2018.

Through Goal 1, countries commit themselves to “End poverty in all its forms everywhere”. This goal is divided into seven targets related to the following: 1) eradicate extreme poverty everywhere; 2) reduce by half the proportion of the population living in poverty; 3) implement social protection measures; 4) ensure the right to economic resources and access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property ; 5) build the resilience of people in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to extreme events; 6) ensure significant mobilization of resources to provide the means for developing countries to end poverty; and 7) create policy frameworks based on development strategies to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication actions.

The global framework contains 13 indicators for the monitoring of Goal 1. On the 2030 Agenda Indicators platform (https://www.ine.es/dyngs/ODS/es/index.htm) 17 sub-indicators corresponding to 9 global indicators have been published. This represents a coverage rate of 69%.

Subir Poverty risk in the EU and Spain

Relative poverty

The relative at-risk-of-poverty rate (Sub-indicator is the proportion of people with an equivalised disposable income below the risk-of-poverty threshold, which in the EU is set at 60% of the national median equivalised disposable income after social transfers. This indicator is one of the components of the At Risk of Poverty or Social Exclusion indicator (known as AROPE) and is part of the Social Indicators Scoreboard of the European Pillar of Social Rights Action Plan.

In 2021 (taking into account 2020 incomes) the percentage of the population with incomes below the risk-of-poverty threshold stood at 21.7% in Spain, while the EU-27 average was 16.8%.

Spanish women experience a higher monetary poverty risk rate (22.2%) than men (21.1%).

By age group, the at-risk-of-poverty rate for children under 16 years of age went from 28.8% in 2015 to 28.7% in 2021. For people over 65 years old, it went from 12.3% in 2015 to 17.5% in 2021.

Severe material and social deprivation

The population with severe material deprivation is the proportion of the population living in households that cannot afford at least four items from a list of nine.

Until 2021, this indicator was part of the AROPE indicator. In that year, in line with the new objectives of the European Strategy 2030, severe material deprivation was replaced by a new concept called "severe material and social deprivation". This indicator is built from a list of 13 items, seven of which are defined at the household level and six at the personal level. Items such as having a telephone, television or washing machine disappear from the above list and new items such as internet connection, regular participation in leisure activities, having two pairs of properly fitting shoes or being able to afford to replace worn-out clothes by new ones are added.

In 2021, severe material deprivation rate in Spain (Sub-indicator reached a value of 7.3% compared to 6.4% in 2015. By age range, the highest value corresponds to the population aged 16-19 years for both males and females. In 2021, it stood at 9.7 years for men and 10.1 for women.

The percentage of the population in a situation of severe material and social deprivation ( in 2021 was 8.3%, compared to 7.4% in the year 2015.

Subir Households with low work intensity

Sub-indicator Population living in households with low work intensity measures households whose working-age members (persons aged 18 to 64, excluding students aged 18 to 24, retired persons, as well as inactive persons aged 60 to 64 whose main source of household income is pensions) worked less than 20% of their total work potential during the reference year. This indicator is part of the AROPE indicator.

In 2021, the population living in households with low work intensity reached 11.6%, compared to 15.4% in 2015. The Autonomous Communities with the lowest proportion of households with low work intensity were La Rioja with 6.7%, Illes Balears with 7.3% and Aragón and País Vasco, both with 7.5%. The highest values were observed in Canarias (21.1%), Andalucia (18.4%) and Principado de Asturias (14.2%).

Subir Public spending on essential services

Indicator 1.a.2 Proportion of total government spending on essential services is derived from the Classification of the Functions of Government (COFOG) statistic. This is a statistic developed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and published by the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) that classifies expenditure, calculated according to the methodology of the European System of National and Regional Accounts of the European Union (ESA-2010).

In the period from 2015 to 2020, the proportion of total government spending on essential services has increased from 62.58% to 65.44%.

The proportion spent on social protection raised from 39.13% in 2015 to 42.10% in 2020.

In turn, the proportion of spending dedicated to education fell from 9.39% to 8.83%.

Subir Measurement of progress

Progress in Spain on the SDG1 sub-indicators is presented, distinguishing between short-term progress (latest year available compared to the previous year) and medium-term progress (since 2015). In both cases, the compound annual growth rate has been used, divided into four intervals based on sub-indicator progress.

For a better visualisation of progress the following colour system has been used where for indicators with positive normative direction (increases are desirable): growth rates greater than or equal to 0.5% are considered progress (), rates in the range (0%, 0.5%) slight progress(), rates in [-0.5%, 0) slight decline () and for rates less than -0.5% decline (). For indicators with a negative normative direction, the categories are reversed. When progress cannot be determined (insufficient data, non-numerical sub-indicator or no clear normative direction) it is specified as n.a.

Of the 17 available sub-indicators, in the medium term (since 2015) eight are progressing favourably, two show slight progress, four are regressing and three cannot be assessed due to insufficient data.

Subindicator Unit Last year
Last year’s value
último año
Medium-term progress   Short term progress Population at risk of relative poverty (income < 60% median) Percentage 2021 21.7 -0.3% 3.3% At risk population for relative poverty (income <60% median) with imputed rent Percentage 2021 19.1 -0.3% 2.7% Population at risk of poverty or social exclusion: AROPE indicator Percentage 2021 27.8 -0.5% 3.0% Population living in households with low work intensity Percentage 2021 11.6 -4.6% 16.0% Population with severe material and social deprivation Percentage 2021 8.3 1.9% -2.4% Population with severe material deprivation Percentage 2021 7.3 2.2% 4.3% Proportion of households with access to running water Percentage 2011 99.84 n.d.   n.d. Proportion of households that have a toilet Percentage 2011 99.42 n.d.   n.d. Proportion of households with a bath/shower Percentage 2011 99.49 n.d.   n.d. Number of dead people directly attributed to disasters per 100,000 population Per 100,000 2020 0.12 -6.7% -25.0% Global data on insured damage to property and damage to persons (direct damage) caused by extraordinary risks (flood, earthquake, strong winds, terrorism, etc.) Millions of euros 2021 528.48 17.7% 46.8% Level of adoption and implementation of national disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 Rank [0,1] 2021 0.57 14.7% 18.8% Proportion of local governments that adopts and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with national disaster risk reduction Percentage 2021 68 15.9% 61.9%
1.a.1.1. Spanish net ODA after deduction of debt operations and reimbursable ODA (FONPRODE, FCAS and FEIM) Millions of euros 2020 2,587.96 4.7% -1.7%
1.a.2.1. Proportion of total government spending on education Percentage 2020 8.83 -1.2% -7.5%
1.a.2.2. Proportion of total government spending on health Percentage 2020 14.51 0.6% 0.1%
1.a.2.3. Proportion of total government spending on social protection Percentage 2020 42.1 1.5% 1.9%


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