26 February 2024

Living Conditions Survey (LCS)

Year 2023. Final results

Main results

  • The percentage of the population at risk of poverty or social exclusion increased to 26.5%, from 26.0% in 2022.
  • The percentage of the population in a situation of severe material and social deprivation rose to 9.0%, compared with the figure of 7.7% the previous year.
  • The average expenditure per person stood at 14,082 euros in 2022, with an annual increase of 8.3%.
  • 9.3% of the population made it to the end of the month with “great difficulty”, compared to 8.7% in 2022.

Population at risk of poverty or social exclusion (AROPE rate)

The AROPE rate (percentage of the population at risk of poverty or social exclusion) for the population residing in Spain stood at 26.5% in 2023, set against the figure of 26.0% for the previous year.

Two of its three components improved, the relative at-risk-of-poverty rate and the percentage of the population with low employment intensity. In contrast, the percentage of the population with severe material and social deprivation deteriorated.

AROPE Indicator. Population included within at least one out of three criteria of poverty risk or social exclusion by components


By age group, the AROPE rate rose by 2.1 points among those under 16 years of age and 0.4 points in the group between 16 and 64 years of age. In contrast, it fell by 0.4 points among those over 65 years of age.

AROPE Indicator. Population included in at least one of the three criteria of the risk of at-poverty-risk rate and social exclusion by age


In 2023 (with income data from 2022), 1.7% of the population was at risk of poverty and with severe material and social deprivation and low employment intensity.

Average income

The average income per person stood at 14,082 euros, a figure 8.3% higher than that registered in the preceding year.

Annual growth of average person income


Economic difficulties of households in 2023

9.3% of the population stated that they made ends meet with “great difficulty” in 2023. This percentage was 0.6 points higher than that registered the previous year.

In turn, 37.1% didn’t have the capacity to handle unforeseen expenses, compared to the figure of 35.5% in 2022.

33.1% of the population couldn’t afford to take a holiday away from home at least one week a year. This percentage was 0.4 points lower than that registered in 2022.

Evolution of economic difficulties


Results by autonomous communities

The highest AROPE rates for risk of poverty and social exclusion in 2023 were recorded in Andalucía (37.5%), Canarias (33.8%) and Extremadura (32.8%).

On the other hand, País Vasco (15.5%) and Comunidad Foral de Navarra (17.2%) displayed the lowest at-risk-of-poverty and social exclusion rates.

The highest at-risk-of-poverty rates were recorded in Andalucía (30.5%), Extremadura (27.6%) and Canarias (26.1%).

País Vasco (10.2%) Comunidad de Madrid (12.9%) and Comunidad Foral de Navarra (13.8%) displayed the lowest at-risk-of-poverty rates.

AROPE indicator and its components by Autonomous Community. Year 2023 (with 2022 income data)


In terms of the difficulties in making ends meet, Andalucía (13.6%), Extremadura (11.0%) and Canarias (9.9%) were the autonomous communities with the highest percentages of people who did so with “great difficulty” in 2023.

Those that displayed the lowest percentages were La Rioja (4.8%), Illes Balears (5.2%) and Principado de Asturias (5.6%).

Reviews and data updates

The data published today are final. All the results are available on INEbase.

Methodological note

The Living Conditions Survey (LCS) is an annual statistical operation aimed at households which is conducted in all European Union countries. It’s a harmonised statistic supported by Regulation (EU) 2019/1700 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 10 October 2019 which establishes a common framework for European statistics related to people and households, based on individual data collected from samples.

The LCS was conducted for the first time in 2004. It provides information on income and the level and composition of poverty and social exclusion in Spain and allows for comparison with other countries of the European Union. The income for the calendar year prior to the interview is collected. Moreover, numerous other questions on living conditions referring to the moment of the interview are compiled. Therefore, the variables related to the incomes of the survey in 2023 refer to 2022 whereas the other questions refer to 2023.

The 2023 LCS was carried out by the National Statistics Institute (INE) in collaboration with the Statistical Institute of Cataluña (IDESCAT) within the scope of the autonomous community.

Type of survey:
Collection period:
february to may 2023.
Sample size:
the effective sample is made up of about 67,000 people.
Type of sampling:
a panel survey in which the people interviewed collaborate for four consecutive years. It’s a stratified two-stage sampling process. The first stage units are the census tracts and the second stage units are the inhabited family dwellings.
Collection method:
the collection method is multichannel, offering the household the possibility of responding online (CAWI) or conducting the survey by telephone interview or face-to-face.

More information on the methodology and the standardised methodological report.

INE statistics are produced in accordance with the Code of Good Practice for European Statistics. More information on Quality at INE and Code of Best Practices.

For further information see Inicio INEbase Official INE account on @es_ine
All press releases at:
Press office:
(+34) 91 583 93 63 / 94 08gprensa@ine.es
Information area:
(+34) 91 583 91 00www.ine.es/infoine/?L=1