The main objective of the Survey on Innovation in Companies is to offer direct information regarding the innovation process in companies, compiling indicators that enable ascertaining the different aspects of this process (economic impact, innovative activities, cost, etc.). This large-scale study, apart from providing rich and varied information on the technological innovation process, may serve as the base framework for diverse specific studies on other aspects related to science and technology.
Its methodology follows the Guidelines proposed by the OECD for the collection and interpretation of data on innovation, better known as the Oslo Manual. From 2018, the survey uses the fourth edition of Oslo Manual, it can be followed in the link https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/science-and-technology/oslo-manual-2018_9789264304604-en?itemId=/content/publication/9789264304604-en&mimeType=text/html&_csp_=f0a6f52d4530c0667c4c56b36905227f&itemIGO=oecd&itemContentType=book.
The fact of using a methodology that is widely accepted on an international level enables reaching the objective of the international comparability of the results obtained, and providing our national experience in the study of innovation.
The survey uses the National Classification of Economic Activities, CNAE-2009, for encoding the activities of the companies, processing and disseminating their data.
This statistical research extends to all agricultural, industrial, construction and services companies with at least ten paid employees, whose main economic activity corresponds to the following activity groups of CNAE-2009:
- Agriculture, livestock breeding, forestry and fishing (01 to 03)
- Extractive industries (05 to 09)
- Manufacturing industry (10 to 33)
- Supply of electrical energy, gas, steam and air conditioning (35)
- Supply of water, sewerage activities, waste management and decontamination (36 to 39)
- Construction (41 to 43)
- Trade (45 to 47)
- Transport and storage (49 to 53)
- Catering (55 to 56)
- Information and communications (58 to 63)
- Financial and insurance activities (64 to 66)
- Real estate activities (68)
- Professional, scientific and technical activities (69 to 75)
- Administrative and support services activities (77 to 82)
- Health and social services activities (86 to 88)
- Artistic, recreational and entertainment activities (90 to 93)
- Other services (95 to 96)
The statistical unit is the company.
The population scope of the survey extends to all agricultural, industrial, construction and services companies with at least ten paid employed persons, and located in the country, whose main economic activity corresponds to the following activity groupings of CNAE-2009:
- Agriculture, livestock breeding, forestry and fishing (branches 01 to 03)
- Extractive industries (branches 05 to 09)
- Manufacturing industry (branches 10 to 33)
- Supply of electrical energy, gas, steam and air conditioning (branch 35)
- Supply of water, sewerage activities, waste management and decontamination (branches 36 to 39)
- Construction (branches 41 to 43)
- Trade (branches 45 to 47)
- Transport and accommodation (branches 49 to 53)
- Catering (branches 55 to 56)
- Information and communications (branches 58 to 63)
- Financial and insurance activities (branches 64 to 66)
- Real estate activities (branch 68)
- Professional, scientific and technical activities (branches 69 to 75)
- Administrative and support services activities (branches 77 to 82)
- Health and social services activities (branches 86 to 88)
- Artistic, recreational and entertainment activities (branches 90 to 93)
- Other services (branches 95 to 96)
From a geographical point of view, the survey covers the whole of the national territory.
Main variables are dissagregated by region.
The survey is carried out annually. There are results available for it starting with reference year 1998.
The Technological Innovation in Companies Survey has results, according to National Classification of Economic Activities 2009 (CNAE-2009), as of reference year 2008.
- Expenditure on activities for technological innovation: thousands of euros
- Innovating companies: number and percentage
There are two time reference periods in the Technological Innovation in Companies Survey:
- The main reference period of the statistics is the year immediately prior to their execution.
- Nevertheless, the variables related to technological innovations implemented by companies refer to the three years prior to the compilation of the statistics, with the objective of international comparability.
Data referred to the period: Anual A: 2019
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2017-2020, approved by Royal Decree 410/2016, of 31 October, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2017-2020. (Statistics of the State Administration).
"European Parliament and Council Decision no. 1608/2003/EC, of 22 July 2002, regarding the production and development of community statistics on science and technology" https://www.ine.es/normativa/leyes/UE/minine.htm#30061
The questionnaire send to the collaborating units informs them that "The personal data that the statistical services obtain, both directly from the respondents and through administrative sources, shall be subject to protection, and covered by statistical secrecy (article 13.1 of the Law on Public Statistical Services of May 9 1989, (LFEP)). All statistical personnel shall be obligated to preserve statistical secrecy (article 17.1 of the LFEP)”.
The survey is disseminated annually.
The results of the survey are disseminated via the INE website, and some results are included in publications such as the Statistical Yearbook, INE Figures, etc.
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.
Access to tables and time series in INEbase, within the "Science and Technology" section in www.ine.es
Any researcher who wants access to the microdata must sign an agreement with the National Statistics institute, for access for statistical purposes, by the research personnel, to the confidential data from the INE. The agreement describes the project, and the need to access said microdata, specifies the period during which the research time would work in the INE, provides the name of the research team and establishes the agreement clauses, including the statistical confidentiality clause.
This access is made through the so-called Secure Places, which consist of computers where said databases are available, and which verify a series of physical and technological provisions to protect the security and integrity of the statistical databases, which in practice implies that strict protocols are applied to those external users who wish to access the microdata for research purposes. Secure Places are available, not only in the Central Services of the INE, but also in the Provincial Delegations.
There is the possibility of requesting customised information from the INE User Care Department. At the time of processing said requests, this considers limitations regarding confidentiality or precision.
For a detailed description of the methods and concepts used, as well as of other documents related to the Technological Innovation in Companies Survey, see the following link:
Based on European Commission (Eurostat) Regulation no. 995/2012, it assesses the quality of the data transmitted, and publishes reports regarding the quality of European Statistics. To this end, each country provides a quality report within the 20 months following the end of the year.
Fields 10.7 to 17 from this document are the quality report oriented toward users for this operation.
Quality assurance framework for the INE statistics is based on the ESSCoP, the European Statistics Code of Practice made by EUROSTAT. The ESSCoP is made up of 16 principles, gathered in three areas: Institutional Environment, Processes and Products. Each principle is associated with some indicators which make possible to measure it. In order to evaluate quality, EUROSTAT provides different tools: the indicators mentioned above, Self-assessment based on the DESAP model, peer review, user satisfaction surveys and other proceedings for evaluation.
In order to guarantee quality information, the information received is processing following the steps listed below:
- Control and manual filtering of the questionnaires by the units involved in the information collection, with the objective of recovering the possible lack of data, or of correcting errors in the questionnaires before they are recorded.
- Interactive recording with filtering and correction of the errors in the information obtained by the units involved in the information collection.
- Control of the information received by the unit responsible for the survey.
- Control of the scope and processing of identification errors.
- Validation of the quality of the information.
- Imputation of the partial non-response.
- Filtering and interaction correction of inconsistencies in the validated information.
- Preparation of a first phase of results analysis tables.
- Macro-publishing of the main aggregates to correct the errors not detected in the previous micro-filtering phase.
- Data analysis.
- Creation of the final data file.
- Obtaining final results tables in the unit responsible for the survey, compiled using the final data file.
The following may be cited as being among the main strengths of this survey:
1) Quick collection, analysis and publication of the results, in such a way that the publication of the latter is carried out within the 12 months following the end of the reference period.
2) As a survey that has been conducted annually since 2002, a comprehensive follow-up may be performed of the data, so that possible inconsistencies therein may be detected, as well as obtaining a time series that is consistent over time.
3) In recent years, an effort has been made to collect the information online, in such a way that its completion is enabled.
4) Obtaining high response rates.
Among the survey users are the following:
· Ministries and other public bodies.
· Territorial administrations (Autonomous Communities, municipal councils, etc.).
· Companies and non-profit institutions.
· Researchers and universities.
Each of these users has different needs, according to the destination and use of the information they require.
Worth noting among user uses is the "Annual Report: Technology and Innovation in Spain", published by COTEC using the data provided by the INE. On an international level, of particular note are the Eurostat publications, with information on a European level.
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016 and 2019 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...
On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)
The specific needs of users are borne in mind, so long as methodological revisions of the survey are carried out. In this way, and based on the regulation governing it, the content thereof is adapted as much as possible to the specific requirements of its users, increasing their satisfaction levels.
In the User Satisfaction Surveys conducted to date, it is possible to view the evaluation of the sector Sciencie and Technology in which this statistical operation is centred, which can help direct us with regard to user opinions of it.
The Technological Innovation in Companies Survey meets all the requirements established in the national and international regulations related to science and technology statistics.
Said statistics are governed by Commission Regulation no. 995/2012, of 26 October 2012. As a result, the rate of compulsory statistical information supplied is R1=100%.
The sampling design tries to minimise the sampling errors, and the different survey processes are aimed at eliminating or reducing the errors thereof, as much as possible, both in the collection phase (response rate and filtering control) and in the subsequent editing and imputation phases.
Sampling errors are in the link: https://www.ine.es/dynt3/inebase/en/index.htm?padre=4318
A1=0.63% coefficient of variation for national total of expenditure on innovative activities.
A control of the non-sampling errors is carried out throughout the entire statistical process. Specific information is also available regarding the non-response rate.
A4 (Non-response rate) = 15.37%
The survey data is published following the end of the year subsequent to the information reference year.
TP2 (time bracket until the publication of the final data) = 12 months
The data is disseminated in accordance with the structural statistics availability calendar that the INE prepares and publishes for each year.
The availability of an methodology, a design and a common process for the collection, filtering, editing and elevation, throughout its geographical scope, guarantees the comparability of the results among the different Autonomous Communities.
On the other hand, the methodological adaptation to the Commission Regulation no. 995/2012, of 26 October 2012, makes comparability possible with the rest of the European Union countries.
The classification change of National Classification of Economic Activities 2009 (CNAE-2009), implemented in reference year 2008, has been carried out without performing backcasting to link the two series. This change in classification implies a break in series.
In 2018, the fourth version of the Oslo Manual, where the most important concepts of innovation are defined, produces a new series break that is reflected in the survey for this year's edition.
The number of comparable elements from the time series is CC2=2.
The use of the same national classification of economic activities enables the possibility of contrasting the survey information with other economic statistics, and with the Central Business Register (CBR).
Coherence is a fundamental issue, both in considering the survey methodology, and in its entire compilation process. Coherence between variables is contrasted in all statistical process phases.
These statistics are 100% on an internal level (for example, when observing arithmetic and accounting identities).
The budgetary credit necessary for financing the Technological Innovation in Companies Survey expected for the 2020 Annual Programme is estimated at 1,589.06 thousand euros.
Electronic questionnaire have been implemented, in order to facilitate the completion thereof, and reduce the respondent workload.
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).
This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow: routine revision- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-; more extensive revision- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and exceptional revision- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.
The INE has a policy that regulates the basic aspects of the revision of statistics , ensuring the transparency of processes and product quality . This policy is described in the document approved by the Board of Directors at the meeting held on March 13 , 2015. The document is available in the section " Quality and good practices" of the INE website :
This policy sets the criteria to be followed for different types of reviews : routine - where statistics which by their nature are reviewed on a regular basis - ; major revisions due to methodological or basic reference sources of statistical changes; and extraordinary revisions (eg due to an error in statistics already published).
They are extraordinary revisions due to errors detected in statistics already published.
It has not been done in the period any revision due to methodological changes or extraordinary revisions.
The population framework of the Technological Innovation in Companies Survey (TICS) is the Central Business Register (CBR).
The Innovation Survey as of the year 2002 has been characterised by being coordinated with the R&D Statistics for the business sector. Due to the coordination of both operations, the directory of possible research companies (DIRID) has been included in the target population of study. This is a registry of companies that potentially carry out R&D activities, be it because they are on record as such in previous years' statistics, or because they have applied for public financing to carry out R&D during the reference year of the survey. With the object of updating this directory, information is requested annually from the State Administration bodies and from all the Autonomous Communities on the entities that receive public R&D funds. This information is cross-referenced with the information from the directory from the previous year, incorporating new registrations and modifications, and delistings.
The coordination has been articulated on two levels: the first level refers to the sampling design, in which the directory of possible researching companies (DIRID) is comprehensively included, as well as a random sample of companies; the second level relates to the use of a sole questionnaire, organised adequately, which allows for the inclusion of the questions relating to both studies.
Considering the previously defined population scope, the population of companies under study in this survey has been stratified by crossing the following variables:
a) Belonging to the directory of companies that potentially might carry out research, which is analysed comprehensively.
b) Size of the company: The following brackets are considered, based on the number of wage earners (employees):
- 10 to 49
- 50 to 199
- 200 and over
The strata made up of companies with 200 or more wage earners have been analysed exhaustively.
c) Branch of main activity, according to CNAE-2009.
d) Autonomous Community where the corporate headquarters of the company is located.
In each stratum, a random-start automatic selection was carried out, organising the companies by size, CNAE and Autonomous Community.
The data collection is annual, and is carried out througout a period of four months.
While Eurostat recommends collecting data on innovation at least for even reference years, some countries, Spain among them, have done so every year.
The information collection method is a mixed system based on postal mailings and interviewer participation, with significant telephone support for the collection thereof. The respondent units may send their data online, by ordinary post (completed print questionnaires) or by e-mail.
The initial stage of the survey information processing coincides with the collection fieldwork, and is carried out in parallel with the duration of the data collection. The articulated system is centred on the following main aspects: a continuous updating process; a filtering of the questionnaire content, integrated in the recording.
The recording and filtering of questionnaires is carried out continuously by the same collection units, establishing the control regulations necessary to guarantee a suitable quality level for the whole process. This facilitates controlling, already in this phase, the errors that may affect the data obtained from respondent units.
Once the data is received in electronic format at the unit responsible for the survey, an information coverage control is carried out, for the purpose of guaranteeing the completeness of the data recorded, detecting duplicities and coverage errors, and at the same time, being able to perform a first assessment regarding the quality of the variables included in the questionnaires. This phase is carried out on each one of the fortnightly files of recorded questionnaires, and its execution is prior to the preparation of the complete survey file, and at the start, therefore, of the whole data processing.
During the micro-filtering process, the detection and filtering of errors and inconsistencies in the identification variables of each register are carried out, as well as the filtering and imputation of content errors. By virtue of the characteristics of each type of error, in certain cases, automatic imputation procedures are used, and in others, updates of the file are carried out in order to incorporate the corrections of the errors detected. Likewise, the systematic errors detected in the studies and analyses carried out previously on the recorded data are corrected.
Once the micro-filtering phase is completed, the last stage prior to the tabulation and dissemination of the results is the obtaining of analysis tables, for the purpose of eliminating the errors and inconsistencies detected in this phase, via macro-filtering techniques.
Given the annual nature of the survey, no seasonal adjustment is made.