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The Energy Consumption Survey (ECS) is a structural biennial statistical operation intended for obtaining information on the energy consumption made by companies (legal units) in the extractive and manufacturing industries.
The statistic offers information on the consumption of the different types of energy products, understood as the products acquired by the company in the reference year to be used as fuel (energy products used as raw materials or for resale without transformation are excluded). Energy consumption is quantified in monetary terms.
These products are classified as: Electricity, Gas, Diesel, Fuel oil, Other petroleum products, Carbon and Coke, Biofuels, Heat and Other energy consumption.
The survey uses the National Classification of Economic Activities CNAE-2009 to code the companies' activity and process and disseminate their data.
The data is disseminated at the section, division and group level for the CNAE-2009 activities belonging to the extractive and manufacturing industries.
Companies with 20 or more employees and whose main activity is included in Sections B (mining and quarrying industries) or C (manufacturing industry) of CNAE-2009.
Industrial activities belonging to sections D (supply of electrical energy, gas, steam and air conditioning) and E (supply of water, sanitation activities, waste management and decontamination) do not form part of the research scope of the survey.
The basic statistical unit used in this operation is company.
Note: The ECS considers each Legal Unit that produces goods or services an enterprise. Its results are integrated with the Structural Business Statistics: Industrial Sector under the traditional approach based on Legal Units.
The target population of the Energy Consuption Survey is formed of companies with 20 or more employees and whose main activity is described in section B and C of the National Classification of Economic Activities (CNAE-2009):
From a geographical point of view, this statistic covers the entire national territory.
Up to reference year 2011, the survey covered the entire national territory, excluding Ceuta and Melilla. Since 2013 both Autonomous Cities are also included within the scope of the survey.
Regarding the publication of results, detailed national results are provided by economic activity, as well as the main results by Autonomous Communities.
The statistic is a continuous operation, on a biennial basis.
The reference period is the calendar year (for odd reference years).
Results for this statistic are available from the reference year 2001.
When the new National Classification of Economic Activities (CNAE-2009) came into force in 2008, it produced a methodological rupture in the series, so the current base year is 2009.
Economic variables: in thousands of euros at current prices.
The data requested refer to the calendar year covered by the survey. Exceptionally, the companies that operate by seasons or campaigns that comprise two different years and thus have accounted for their data in this way, the information refers to the season or campaign that ends in that year.
Data referred to the period: Year 2019
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2021-2024, approved by Royal Decree 1110/2020, of 15 December, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2021-2024. (Statistics of the State Administration).
In requests for tailored information the same treatment is also carried out to preserve statistical secrecy.
The survey is disseminated biennially.
The data is published on the INE website.
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.
Access to tables and time series in INEbase within the section "Industry, energy and construction" at www.ine.es
No. of data table queries: AC1=9.997 accesos in 2020.
In this statistical operation no microdata is released. Only microdata files are handed over to other statistical bodies (Statistical Institutes of Autonomous Communities), which also have the legal obligation to preserve statistical secrecy.
Interested users can request specific tailored information processing through the INE Information Area, preserving data confidentiality in all cases.
A detailed description of the survey methodology is available at:
This standardised methodological report contains all the elements of what is considered a "user-oriented quality report", for this operation.
Quality assurance framework for the INE statistics is based on the ESSCoP, the European Statistics Code of Practice made by EUROSTAT. The ESSCoP is made up of 16 principles, gathered in three areas: Institutional Environment, Processes and Products. Each principle is associated with some indicators which make possible to measure it. In order to evaluate quality, EUROSTAT provides different tools: the indicators mentioned above, Self-assessment based on the DESAP model, peer review, user satisfaction surveys and other proceedings for evaluation.
The production process of the statistic has established checks to detect and correct errors in order to guarantee its quality.
The data collection in the Collection Units (URCEs) is programmed with serious and second level errors, in order to clean-up the data as they are entered by the user. During data collection and cleansing, measures are also taken to reduce non-response.
Finally, once the data reaches the Central Services, the data is subjected to additional micro and macro cleansing checks, as well as cross-checks with other surveys in the industrial sector to ensure a final product of sufficient quality.
Statistics are compiled taking into account the quality criteria listed in Article 12(1) of Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council, namely: relevance, accuracy, timeliness, punctuality, accessibility, clarity, comparability and coherence.
The statistics can be considered of high quality provided that a sufficiently representative sample of the target population is provided at national and regional level for each stratum of activity. In addition, the data is subjected to adjustment criteria and inter-annual checks, as well as cross-checks with data from other surveys.
Within the INE, the main users of the information provided by this statistical operation are the Environmental Accounts, specifically the Energy Accounts. Their needs have been taken into account to expand the disaggregation of energy products.
The external users of the survey include:
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016 and 2019 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...
On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)
In the user satisfaction survey, which can be consulted on the INE website, in the section "Quality and Good Practice", element "Management of the Quality of the INE", the INDUSTRY sector, in which this statistical operation is framed, is valued, and this can guide the users' opinion regarding it.
The specific needs of users are taken into account whenever methodological revisions of the survey are carried out, in order to adapt the content of the survey to the specific requirements of its users, increasing their levels of satisfaction.
The survey meets the information requirements of the National Statistical Plan in the field of structural information on energy consumption in industry.
Rate of comPreteness of the data: R1=100%
The survey design seeks to minimise sampling errors and the different processes of the survey are aimed at eliminating or minimising errors in the same, both in the collection phase (response rate and cleansing ) and in subsequent editing and imputing phases.
The tables published include information by activities on the sampling error of the main variable.
Sampling error for Energy consumption: A1=0.07%
A control of non-sampling errors is carried out throughout the statistical process. Specific information on the non-response rate is also available.
Over-coverage rate: A2=5,3%
Non-response rate by unit: A4=6,8%
The data is published after the dissemination of Final Results of the Structural Bussiness Statistics: Industrial Sector, for odd reference exercises.
Opportunity of final results: TP2=t+17 months+29 days.
The data is disseminated according to the structural statistics availability calendar that the INE prepares and publishes each year.
The availability of a methodology, a design and a common process of collection, cleansing, editing and updating in all its geographical area, guarantees the comparability of the results between the different Autonomous Communities.
In reference year 2008, a logical gap occurred in the series, due to the introduction of the new National Classification of Economic Activities (CNAE-2009).
In reference year 2015, the “Integration Project of the Structural Economic Surveys" started, including the implementation of a reformed common questionnaire for the industry, trade and services sectors, as well as a homogeneous dissemination plan for the three sectors. For the Industrial Sector, the harmonisation with the other two sectors has meant a change of criteria in the publication of the national statistical results which, from this year onwards, are classified according to the company's main activity and not according to the establishment as had been done until then. As the Energy Consumption Survey is a sub-sample of the Structural Business Statistics: Industrial Sector, it is also affected by this project. In order to enable a link with the previous series, together with the results published for this year 2015, a complementary table of the main figures under the previous criterion was provided.
It should be noted taht this is not the case with the regional statistical results, which continue to be based on the main activity of the establishment.
Length of comparable time series: CC2=3
The use of the same national classification of economic activities allows the survey information to be compared with other economic statistics, such as the Structural Business Statistics: Industrial Sector.
Coherence is a fundamental issue both in the survey methodology approach and in the whole production process. The coherence between the variables is checked in all phases of the statistical process.
The estimate of the budgetary allocation necessary to fund these statistics planned in the 2021 Annual Programme amounts to 22.11 thousand euros.
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).
This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow: routine revision- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-; more extensive revision- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and exceptional revision- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.
The data are disclosed once they are final.
There is no revision of data in this survey.
The survey sampling framework is obtained from the Central Business Register (Directorio Central de Empresas DIRCE), which contains information on the main economic activity, the number of employees, turnover, and on identification and location data, necessary for the correct collection of information.
Given that the objective of the survey is to obtain disaggregated information on the different types of energy consumption carried out by companies and that the Structural Business Statistics (SBS) has information relating to the total consumption, the ECS sample has been selected as a sub-sample of the total sample of the SBS:Industrial Sector, with the aim of achieving greater integration in the results of both studies.
The target population of study of the survey, that is, the group of industrial companies with 20 or more employees, has been divided, for the purposes of the sample design, into a set of strata. The stratification was carried out based on the activity and size bracket variables. Companies with 250 or more employees were studied comprehensively, whilst companies with fewer than 250 employees were studied by sampling.
The sample consists of approximately 5.700 companies.
The selection of the companies in the sample within each stratum was carried out by taking into account the need to be part of the sample of the Structural Business Statistics (SBS):Industrial Sector (search for coherence) and with negative coordination with samples from other surveys (distribution of the individual response burden).
Data collection is biennial.
The collection of survey data begins in the second quarter of the year following the reference year, simultaneously with that of the Structural Business Statistics, through the INE Collection Units, and is carried out by promoting the completion of the questionnaire via the Internet as much as possible. In any case, the respondents have other response channels available (postal mail, fax, telephone or electronic questionnaires).
The collection units are responsible for manning telephone lines to resolve any doubts from respondents, and for recording and filtering the questionnaires. Telephone contact is made with companies in cases where there is no response within the established deadline or where the response is considered insufficient or inconsistent.
The initial stage of processing the survey information is carried out in parallel to the data collection itself, during the entire duration thereof. The established system allows for a continuous updating process, as well as a first cleansing of questionnaire content. Its objective is to establish sufficient levels of quality to allow a significant simplification of the subsequent information processing.
The questionnaires, both those filled in via the Internet and those recorded by the collection units, are subject to the necessary control standards to guarantee an adequate level of quality throughout the process. This allows any errors that may affect the data obtained from the respondent units to be checked, right from this phase.
The records taken by the Collection Units form and supply, at least fortnightly, the complete record files on which the subsequent phases of the joint information processing are carried out. These files are processed in the Central Services where information coverage is controlled to guarantee completeness of the recorded data, detect duplicates and coverage errors and at the same time carry out an initial assessment of the quality of the variables collected.
Once the collection and first filtering of the questionnaires has been carried out and the information is available in the file, the process of detection and cleansing of errors and inconsistencies continues at Central Services.
During the micro filtering process, the detection and filtering of errors and inconsistencies in the identification variables of each record is carried out, as well as the filtering and imputing of content errors. Depending on the characteristics of each type of error, automatic imputation procedures and corrections of the errors detected are carried out. The microfiltering phase is carried out in an integrated manner, with the error detection of the Structural Business Statistics, enabling a more effective control of the correction process and higher levels of overall quality, by exploiting the information from two different statistical sources. Likewise, the systematic errors detected in the studies and analyses carried out previously on the recorded data are corrected. Once the micro-filtering phase is finished, the next step is to proceed with the weighting factors to determine the estimates of different variables. The last stage, before the tabulation and dissemination of results, is obtaining analysis tables to eliminate the errors and inconsistencies detected in this phase by means of macro-processing techniques.
No seasonal adjustments are made.