The Statistics on Products in the Services Sector (SPSS) is an annual structural statistical operation whose data collection is carried out through questionnaires attached to the Structural Business Statistics: Services Sector questionnaires and addressed to the same units included in its sample. Thus, these two operations are completely integrated and share the same methodology regarding their field of study, survey design, classification variables, collection and information processing .
Note on Structural Business Statistics (EEE): Services Sector. According to the European Statistical System, Structural Business Statistics have implemented a new practical application of the statistical concept of ‘Enterprise' for reference year 2018. Under this new approach, an Enterprise may be made up of one or more Legal Units, and in the latter case, the Statistical Enterprise will include the economic and employment variables of the Legal Units that comprise it. This criterion differs from the one previously applied where each separate Legal Unit was considered an enterprise. Although the new approach only affects Legal Units that are part of business groups, as these are highly relevant entities in economic and employment terms, the statistical results of the EEE and its distribution by activities and sizes are affected. In order for users to be able to compare the EEE data under the traditional approach (based on separate Legal Units) and the new approach (based on the concept of Statistical Enterprises), for the 2018 reference year, INE has disseminated both versions of statistical results.
Note on Statistics on Products in the Services Sector. For the purposes of statistical results, the SPSS referring to 2018 is integrated with the EEE of that year under its version based on Legal Units.
The main objective of the Statistics on Products in the Services Sector is to determine the specific characteristics of some of the sub-sectors that make up the Services Sector in order to carry out a more precise analysis adapted to each economic activity.
Specific variables in each individual sector. These collect information on the characteristics of each sector. Some examples:
Transport of passengers or goods by road, marine transport or air transport: The questionnaire for this subsector includes a specific section dedicated to the number of vehicles by type and age. Information is also requested on the consumption of raw materials and other consumables.
Postal activities: In this questionnaire, information is requested on the traffic carried out by geograpical type of the service provided. Information is also requested on the breakdown of the consumption of raw materials and other consumables.
Advertising services: The consumption of advertising space and time for resale is requested.
Travel agencies: Companies in this sector that obtain part of their turnover from the sale of tourist packages made by themselves are requested to provide details of the services that form these packages (transport services, accommodation, catering, car rental, recreational and cultural services, financial and insurance services). In this way, the composition of these packages is determined, which is very useful information for the estimates of the Spanish Tourism Satellite Account.
Regarding the main activity of businesses, this statistic uses the National Classification of Economic Activities (CNAE-2009) to stratify, classify, process and release its data.
With regard to the codification of the products, the National Classification of Products by Activities (CPA-2008) is used.
The Statistics on Products in the Services Sector's target population is made up of the businesses, companies and individuals whose main activity is listed below.
Section H Transport and Storage
49.1 + 49.2 Interurban passenger transportation by railway. Transport of goods by train
49.3 Other overland passenger transport:
49.31 Urban and suburban overland passenger transport
49.39 Other kinds of overland passenger transport of not elsewhere classified.
49.4 Transport of goods by road and relocation services
50 Marine and inland waterway transport
51 Air transport
53 Postal and courier activities
Section I Hotel Industry
55.1 Hotels and similar accommodation (for businesses with 50 or more salaried workers)
Section J Information and Communications
58.2 Publishing of computer programmes
59 Cinematographic activities, video and television programmes, recording of sound and musical publishing
60 Television and radio programming and broadcasting activities
62 Programming, consultancy and other activities related to ICT
63.1 Data processing, hosting and related activites; web portals
Section M Professional, Scientific and Technical Activities
69.1 Legal activities
69.2 Accounting, bookkeeping and auditing activities
70.2 Management consultancy activities
71 Architecture and engineering activities; technical testing and analysis
73.2 Market research and public opinion polling
Section N Administrative and Support Service Activities
78 Employment-related activities
79.1 Travel agency and tour operator activities (for businesses that have at least 20 salaried workers)
81.2 Cleaning activities
Section S Other Services
95.11 Repair of computers and peripheral equipment
The statistical unit is the business whose main economic activity is the provision of any of the services included in the population scope. The enterprise is also the respondent unit, due to the fact that as it is clearly defined, may be located and has its accounting and employment data available, response is facilitated and homogeneous information is obtained.
Note: The SPSS referring to 2018, as in previous years, considers each Legal Unit that produces goods or services as an Enterprise. Its results are, therefore, integrated with the Structural Business Statistics: Services Sector under its traditional approach based on Legal Units.
The target population of the Statistic on Products in the Services Sector is made up of businesses, companies and individuals whose main activity is one of the sectors described below.
From a geographic perspective, this statistic covers the entire national territory.
Results broken down geographically are not published.
This statistic is carried out annually.
There are results available from reference year 2005 to 2007, using the CNAE-93 as the classification of economic activities. From reference year 2008, the CNAE-2009 has been used.
There are results available for this statistic from reference year 2005.
The reference period for the data is the calendar year.
Data referred to the period: Anual A: 2018
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2017-2020, approved by Royal Decree 410/2016, of 31 October, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2017-2020. (Statistics of the State Administration).
The Statistics on Products in the Services Sector is included in the category of structural statistics according to Regulation 295/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning structural business statistics, more specifically, in its Annex I and VIII.
The Statistics Institute of Catalonia contributes to the translation of the questionnaires.
In the tabulation plan, breakdown levels have been designed that are not affected by confidential data. In tailored requests, cell suppression is used to preserve statistical secrecy.
This statistic is released annually, simultaneously with the publication of the definitive results of the Structural Business Statistics: Services Sector.
The survey's results are released through the INE webpage (https://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/en/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736176898&menu=resultados&idp=1254735576778) and some of the results are included in publications such as the Anuario Estadistico (Statistical Yearbook), Cifras INE (INE Figures) etc.
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.
Tables and time series can be accessed:
From www.ine.es : In the INEbase > Services section > Global surveys on Services Sector > Statistics on Products in the Services Sector:
Number of consultations of data tables: AC1=6,848 consultations in 2019.
No microdata file is provided for this statistical operation.
Microdata files are only provided to other statistical bodies (Statistical Institutes of the Autonomous Communities) who also have the obligation to preserve statistical secrecy.
The data, which are released annually, aim to offer basic, and relevant, information on the survey's main results, which allow the demand for information of its various users to be satisfied.
It is helpful to note that the year-to-year variations obtained from the results of this survey may be due, on some occasions (to a greater or lesser degree), to changes in the structure of the corresponding reference populations (for example, changes in activity in certain companies that consequently mean that they are classified in a different activity sector to the previous year, etc.), so, not necessarily in all cases, the changes mentioned can be directly associated with a change of the same magnitude, in the manufacturing activity of the set of businesses of a certain sector or sub-population. .
Finally, it is important to highlight that the release of the survey is not exclusively limited to the tables that are offered here or covered in the publication. Safeguarding the restrictions derived from statistical secrecy or the sample nature of the survey, the existing computer procedures allow for custom requests for aggregated data to be dealt with, which may be provided in the medium or format chosen by the user.
The request is made through the Information Area https://www.ine.es/ss/Satellite?c=Page&p=1254735638180&pagename=ProductosYServicios%2FPYSLayout&cid=1254735638180&L=1
A detailed description can be found at:
On the basis of Regulation 275/2010 of the Commission and 295/2008 of the European Parliament and Council, the European Commission (Eurostat) evaluates the quality of the transferred data and publishes reports on the quality of European statistics. For this reason, each country provides information on the variation coefficients of the characteristics that are covered in this and at the requested level of disaggregation, as well as data on non-responses. The quality report contains quantitative and qualitative information. Eurostat provides information on the main quantitative indicators, calculated from the data provided by Member States.
This standardised methodological report contains all the elements that are considered to be the "User-oriented quality report" for this operation.
Quality assurance framework for the INE statistics is based on the ESSCoP, the European Statistics Code of Practice made by EUROSTAT. The ESSCoP is made up of 16 principles, gathered in three areas: Institutional Environment, Processes and Products. Each principle is associated with some indicators which make possible to measure it. In order to evaluate quality, EUROSTAT provides different tools: the indicators mentioned above, Self-assessment based on the DESAP model, peer review, user satisfaction surveys and other proceedings for evaluation.
The preparation process for this statistic has established controls to detect and correct errors in order to guarantee its quality.
As well as the controls recommended by the European body, the final stage includes other internal controls that allow for the guarantee of a final product of sufficient quality.
Regulation 275/2010 of the Commission establishes that the Commission should evaluate the data sent by the different Member States for the statistics of SBS Regulation (EC) No 295/2008, according to the quality criteria outlined in article 12, section 1 of Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 of the European Parliament and the Council, namely: relevance, accuracy, timeliness, punctuality, accessibility, clarity, comparability and coherence.
This statistic can be considered to be high quality, as a sufficiently representative sample is obtained from the target population for each stratum of activity and company size. Furthermore, the data are subjected to adjustment criteria and year-to-year checks, as well as comparisons with data from administrative registers, and those provided in the business register.
The users of this survey include:
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013 and 2016 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...
On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)
On the INE web page, in its section on quality, the "Services" sector in which this statistical operation is found is evaluated, which may provide some indication on users' opinion on the operation.
The survey complies with the information requirements according to Regulation (EC) No 295/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning structural business statistics and according to Decision No 1297/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council on a Programme for the Modernisation of European Enterprise and Trade Statistics (MEETS).
It appears in the 2017-2020 National Statistics Plan in the section of structural information for the services sector and in the EU Statistics Programme: Annual enterprise statistics.
Rate of completeness of the data: R1 =100%
The sample design intends to reduce sampling errors and the different survey processes are aimed at eliminating or reducing its errors as much as possible, both in the collection stage (rate of response and filtering control) and in the later stages of filtering and imputation.
The collection process, coverage control, filtering of errors and imputation of a non-response allows a high level of reliability to be obtained for this statistic.
Sampling errors are calculated on the main variables at different levels of disaggregation.
Unbiased estimators have been used in the sample, stratified with directory correction according to the type of incidence presented.
Sampling error for Turnover variable: A1 = 0.20%
Throughout the statistical process a non-sampling error control is carried out. Specific information is also available on the non-response rate.
Over-coverage rate: A2=13.7%
Non-response rate by unit: A4=22%
The Structural Business Statistics (SBS) Regulation requires results to be available within 18 months of the end of the reference period.
Opportunity final results: TP2 = 17 months + 24 days
Data are released in accordance with the structural statistics availability calendar prepared and published by the INE annually.
The availability of a common methodology, design and process for collection, filtering, editing and updating in all its geographical scope, guarantees the comparability of the results between the different Autonomous Communities. On the other hand, the methodological adaptation to the SBS Regulation makes it possible to compare with the other European Union countries that disseminated this same information for their respective sectors.
The use of a single national classification of economic activities enables the comparison of this survey's information with other economic statistics (such as the Services Sector's short-term statistics) and with the Central Business Directory (Directorio Central de empresas DIRCE).
It is comparable at the international level, it covers the information needs of the statistic's various users and it is a useful instrument for the National Accounts. Furthermore, it serves as a framework for updating short-term indicators and for studying the changes that have occurred in the sector.
Coherence is a fundamental matter both in the planning of the survey's methodology and throughout its preparation. Coherence between variables is compared at all stages of the statistical process.
The statistic is internally coherent (for example, arithmetic and accounting identities are observed) and coherent or compatible in a reasonable period of time.
INE, conscious of the statistical burden on companies, tries to apply certain methods to its questionnaires to reduce this burden as much as possible and, in all cases, it facilitates the completion of information required from respondents.
The following are some of the measures adopted in this operation to reduce the statistical burden:
The estimate of the budgetary appropriation necessary to finance this statistic, as provided for in the 2020 Annual Programme, is 58.36 thousand Euros.
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).
This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow: routine revision- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-; more extensive revision- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and exceptional revision- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.
Data are not reviewed.
The data are published when they are definitive, they are not subject to revision.
The sample framework is the Central Business Register (Directorio Central de Empresas DIRCE), a list of companies that is updated once a year with administrative sources, mainly from tax and Social Security sources. Information from INE statistical operations are also used to update it.
contains information on the main economic activity, the number of employees and turnover, variables that are used in the sample design, and on identification and location data, necessary for the correct collection of the information.
SAMPLE DESIGN AND STRATIFICATION
All businesses with 50 or more employees are studied exhaustively and are thus included in the survey with probability 1. Also exhaustively included are the companies registered in the framework of the same reference year and that have 20 or more employees or that are relevant because of their turnover. Furthermore, the group of affiliate companies of foreign companies in Spain and companies with fewer than 50 employees but with large turnovers are studied exhaustively.
For the rest of the businesses, stratified random sampling is applied, taking the following as the stratification variables:
SAMPLE SIZE. ALLOCATION
Within each stratum, the average size of each sample is calculated using Neyman's optimal allocation, presetting a sampling error for the variable of number of employees and for the turnover variable.
In the "Structural Business Statistics. Methodology" document available on the INE website, more details can be found on sample design, estimators and the method for calculating sampling errors.
Data are collected annually. For reference year t, data are collected between September and December of year t+1.
Completion of the questionnaire over the internet is promoted as much as possible and 80% of the total questionnaires collected were completed this way. In any case, respondents have other response channels available to them (fax, postal mail, telephone or electronic questionnaire sent by email).
The collection units are also responsible for responding to telephone lines to resolve respondents' doubts, and for the recording and filtering of questionnaires. Errors and anomalous data are subject to revision and, if necessary, respondents will be contacted again by telephone.
During the questionnaire collection stage, the first filtering and coding processes are carried out on them. Both the electronic questionnaires that respondents fill out on the Internet as well as the application of collection management, recording and filtration used by INE's Collection Units have systems programmed to detect errors in order to validate data as they are entered by the user. It distinguishes between serious errors (which must be corrected) and second-tier anomalies (which, after confirmation, must be justified). Furthermore, during the collection and filtering of data, measures are also adopted to reduce non-responses.
The records made by the Collection Units form and feed into, at least fortnightly, the complete recorded files on which the later stages of joint information processing are carried out. These files are processed in the Central Services, where new information coverage control is carried out to guarantee the completeness of the recorded data, to detect duplicates and coverage errors and, at the same time, to carry out an initial assessment of the quality of the variables collected.
As the collection progresses and the complete recording files are formed, the data is subjected to additional micro-filtration controls at Central Services focused, selectively, on the detection and filtering of errors and inconsistencies in the variables of each record, as well as the filtering and imputation of content errors. Depending on the characteristics of each type of error, automatic imputation procedures are used in certain cases. Likewise, systematic errors detected in previously studies and analyses on recorded data are corrected.
Since reference year 2016 various methodological improvements have been applied to the Structural Business Statistics, included in the "Integration Project of the Structural Economic Surveys". The aforementioned improvements are related to the treatment of companies that cause the target population to rise or fall in the reference year, as well as the imputation of non-response. On the other hand, the estimation of employment variables has been improved by using administrative sources.
For internal methodological studies, the conclusion was made that reconsidering the non-response brought with it a certain overestimation of monetary variables, as a significant part of the non-response is only active during part of the reference year. For this reason, a decision was made to substitute this re-weighting with the application of different imputation techniques, based on administrative data. The minimum aim of these imputations was that both the turnover and the number of employees corresponds to the company's own value and during the year in question. The rest of the variables are imputed, using highly correlated administrative information, conditional on the two variables, which guarantees the global coherence of the imputed records.
For the effective sample (which, as explained, has included the non-response since 2016), elevation factors are calculated to determine the estimates of different variables. The last stage, before the tabulation and release of the results, is obtaining analysis tables through macro-filtration techniques to eliminate the errors and inconsistencies detected. The data are also subjected to comparisons with other statistics (e.g., other short-term INE surveys on the sectors studied) and with information from administrative sources, in order to guarantee a final product of sufficient quality.
Seasonal adjustments are not made