The Labour and Geographical Mobility Statistics (LGMS), research the relationship between the employability of persons and their availability to change residence, through the joint study of the labour characteristics and the time they have resided in the municipality.
For this purpose, the LGMS includes specific variables derived from the Municipal Register Database of the INE (population base resulting from the coordination of the Municipal Registers) in the Economically Active Population Survey (EAPS) sample for the first quarter of each reference year. In this way, it is possible to relate the demographic and labour variables in the EAPS with the geographical mobility registered in the administrative source. Regarding the latter, only inter-municipality changes in residence will be considered, as changes in address within the same municipality are not relevant for labour purposes.
The classification systems are the same systems as those used in the EAPS. In particular:
Branch of economic activity: The data is coded to 3 digits (272 groups) of the 2009 National Classification of Economic Activities, CNAE-09.
Occupation: Since 2011, the data is coded to 3 digits of the 2011 National Classification of Occupations, NCO-2011. For the year 2010, the occupations are classified according to NCO-1994.
Professional status: The data is coded for the following 7 groups: employers, self-employed workers, cooperative members, family aids, wage-earners (private or public sector), and others. There is correspondence to the International Classification by Status in Employment (ICSE) of the International Labour Organization (ILO).
Education (highest level of studies): Since 2014, the data is coded into 23 categories for the level of education – to 2 digits of the 2014 National Classification of Education, NCE-2014. For the previous years, the levels of studies are classified according to NCE-2000.
Education or training received during the four previous weeks: Since 2014, the data is coded into 25 categories for the level of education – to 2 digits of the 2014 National Classification of Education- NCE-2014. For the previous years, the education or training received is classified according to NCE-2000.
All categories of CNAE, NCO and NCE are covered.
Persons who are 16 years of age or over and resident in Spanish main family dwellings.
All persons who live in a private dwelling are included. Persons who live in a group household are included if they have a link with a private household.
Foreign nationals are included if they are going to live in Spain for over a year (except persons in the military or foreign diplomats).
For further information, see the standardized EAPS methodological report.
As per the survey, all statistical units located within the territory of the Spanish state, are object of research.
The series of LGMS is published for the first quarter of that same year will be published annually.
The first reference period of the published data is the year 2010.
The information of the EAPS sample is obtained from the first quarter of each calendar year. Therefore all variables, being the labour variables of the survey itself as well as those that refer to geographical mobility, refer to the reference week of the EAPS survey within the first quarter of that year.
Data referred to the period: Anual A: 2019
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2017-2020, approved by Royal Decree 410/2016, of 31 October, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2017-2020. (Statistics of the State Administration).
The LGMS is included in the National Statistical Plan in force within the sector or topic: "Labour market and salaries", with program no. 6413 and under the initial name "Labour Market Statistics and Migration". Furthermore, the LGMS appears in the Annual Program in force with the same name and program no.
The information regarding demographic and labour statistics is compiled by the INE via the Economically Active Population Survey (EAPS), and the geographic mobility data is obtained based on the administrative registers coming from the INE Municipal Register Database, combined with the information of the EAPS.
The direct identification data is not saved along with the statistical information.
The aggregate information complies with the confidentiality restrictions.
These statistics are disseminated annually.
The information is disseminated in a press release which includes the main data.
The reference of said press release may be found in: https://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/es/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736176909&menu=ultiDatos&idp=1254735976597
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.
INEbase tables may be accessed in the section Society/Labour Market, via the following the link: https://www.ine.es/dynt3/inebase/en/index.htm?padre=1466
It is possible to request customised information from the INE Information Area. Limitations on confidentiality or accuracy will be taken into account when processing said requests.
A detailed methodological description is available in the following link: https://www.ine.es/metodologia/t22/t2230209.pdf
Sections 10.6 to 17.2 in this document compile information on quality addressed to the users of this operation.
Quality assurance framework for the INE statistics is based on the ESSCoP, the European Statistics Code of Practice made by EUROSTAT. The ESSCoP is made up of 16 principles, gathered in three areas: Institutional Environment, Processes and Products. Each principle is associated with some indicators which make possible to measure it. In order to evaluate quality, EUROSTAT provides different tools: the indicators mentioned above, Self-assessment based on the DESAP model, peer review, user satisfaction surveys and other proceedings for evaluation.
The compilation process of these statistics have established controls so as to detect and correct the errors that will guarantee their quality. In this sense, the coherence between the data received from the INE Municipal Register Database is filtered with the data obtained directly from EAPS respondents. Data filtering and validation is automatic so that possible processing errors are not introduced. Internationally accepted "record linkage" techniques are used so that the register link between databases provides a guarantee in terms of search and correct identification of persons.
From the statistical production point of view, LGMS is efficient in terms of economic and human resources since it uses the compilation process of the EAPS in its field work stage as well as its computer filtering and processing of the demographic and labour variables. The EAPS harmonised methodology, allows reliable comparisons and gives an extremely valuable, linked and integrated measure on the labour market, including socio-demographic information (educational level, type of household) that no other statistical source provides with such conceptual detail. For further information, see the standardized EAPS methodological report.
The supplementary specific information on changes of residence is obtained from the "Continuous Register" or the "INE Municipal Register Database". The Municipal Register Database has an excellent updating status, which allows an elevated linking rate between the sample of persons 16 years of age or older in the EAPS and the Municipal Register Database.
Therefore, the geographical mobility variables obtained via the statistical processing of the data in the Municipal Register offer more contents with greater accuracy than the data that would be obtained by directly asking respondents.
Among the users of the survey, the following are worth mentioning:
*) Ministries (Economy, Employment, Education, etc.) and other public organisations (Bank of Spain., Economic and Social Council, observatories, etc.)
*) Territorial administrations (Autonomous Communities, Provincial Councils, City Councils)
*) Researchers and academic world
*) Non-profit companies and institutions (Company research services, foundations, associations, etc.), trade unions and employers' organisations.
*) Press and specialised media
Each one of these users have different needs according to the purpose and use they will make of the information they require.
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016 and 2019 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...
On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)
There is no specific EAPS user satisfaction survey for the LGMS, however, the User Satisfaction Survey (USS) does indicate the satisfaction level of the labour market user group.
Data requests of the LGMS are treated occasionally and are practically completely satisfied in time and shape, providing the sample allows the requested breakdowns.
These statistics provide all the information required by the National Statistical Plan, therefore the "rate of available compulsory results" is 100%.
The INE publishes the reports that allow assessing the users' problems associated with the errors that occur during the statistical process, such as field work incidences, the response rate, the evaluation of the interviewers, the results of the evaluation survey, etc.
For further information regarding accuracy in the EAPS see report “Quality assessment of the EAPS”. Usually due to the intrinsic characteristics of the EAPS, there is less response regarding the groups that are most difficult to find in a permanent dwelling. Hence, for example, the sample of elderly persons is overrepresented in the sample; there is a higher response of persons with Spanish nationality than those of a foreign nationality, etc. The application of calibration techniques since 2005 has solved this problem greatly.
The current updating status of the INE municipal register is considered to be excellent. On the other hand, the last available version of the municipal register database will always be used. These facts cause a very high linking rate between the sample of persons 16 years of age or over in the EAPS and the Municipal Register Database.
The calculation of variation coefficients of the EAPS main variables is carried out each time the survey is compiled and are disseminated in its publication and in subsequent quality reports. For further details, visit sampling errors in the EAPS website.
Mobility has low incidence, therefore the EAPS sample that changes from one year to the other in the municipality of residence is low. For this reason, the results for the national group and more aggregated data are basically obtained for the Autonomous Communities insomuch as it is allowed by statistical secrecy and the variation coefficient of the estimators.
In the results tables, absolute values in thousands of persons and less than 5.0 should be taken with caution, as they may be affected by high sample errors.
Non-sampling errors are controlled in the entire statistical process.
See the “EAPS quality assessment” report for the non-response rate in the EAPS.
Furthermore, there is specific information on the linking rate between EAPS respondents over 16 years of age and the Municipal Register Database. This linking rate makes up for approximately 99.4% of the total EAPS sample of persons 16 years of age or over.
The data is published in the month of October after the reference quarter (the first quarter of each year). Therefore the time elapsed from the termination of the reference period to the publication of the data is 6 months (t+6 months).
LGMS results are published in accordance with the short-term statistics publication calendar of the INE.
Each publication has been made public on the date announced in the publication calendar.
The use of definitions from the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the strict application of definitions and concepts of the European Union Labour Force Survey, which is collected in the regulations, allows comparing the results of these statistics with those of similar statistics in other countries.
The continuity of the methodology applied since the implementation of the survey, allows its comparability in time since 2010, which is the initial period of the operation. It must however be taken into account that in 2011 there was a logical break in the series, which is a consequence of the entry into force of the New National Classification of Occupations (NCO-2011). Also in 2014 the new National Classification of Education, NCE-2014 is incorporated.
However - since the results are aggregated for large groups - in its entirety thereof they are comparable since the beginning of the series in 2010.
LGMS estimates are coherent with the data on labour and geographical mobility of wage earners, which are obtained from the use of tax sources, once the difference between both sources are taken into account. LGMS estimates usually offer a greater amount of wage earners with a period of residence lower than one year. These differences are due to the fact that the LGMS includes all residential variations among different municipalities and not only residential variations among municipalities from different Autonomous Communities. Furthermore, it must be taken into consideration that the LGMS also includes Pais Vasco and the Comunidad Foral de Navarra, which are not included when using the tax data of the "common fiscal territory".
On the other hand, the data focuses on the Spanish population resident in family dwellings and this data grouped according to their employment status (employed or unemployed persons) compared with the migration statistics figures, cover all the population resident in national territory.
Internal coherence is an essential factor in planning the EAPS as well as in its compilation. Given the LGMS is compiled based on EAPS data, it automatically adopts the degree of coherence between the demographic and labour variables of this survey. For further information in this regard, see the EAPS standardized methodological report.
Coherence among the variables derived from the Municipal Register Database and the demographic variables of the EAPS regarding the place of birth and the time of residence in Spain, are contrasted in all stages of the statistical process.
In the 2019 Annual Program, the estimate of the necessary budget appropriation to finance this statistical operation is 6,07 thousand euros.
This operation is a model of use of low cost administrative sources that uses efficient methods and provides periodical figures on an aspect that is object of social and labour policies...
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).
This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow: routine revision- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-; more extensive revision- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and exceptional revision- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.
The published information is final and data is not revised.
The published information is final and therefore data is not revised.
This statistical operation uses the information derived from the integration of statistical data provided by the EAPS with the administrative data registered in the INE Municipal Register Database.
The frequency of data collection is annual.
Demographic and labour information coming from the EAPS is collected the month after the first reference quarter. Later, in that same year, the supplementary data for the compilation of the geographic mobility variables of LGMs could be consulted in the INE Municipal Register Database.
It is a statistical operation that crosses the EAPS with administrative registers, therefore there is no additional collection associated with the variables of the LGMS. The incorporation of specific variables of these statistics is carried out by consulting the Municipal Register Database according to what is described in section 18.2 and 18.5.
Demographic and labour data coming from the EAPS undergo a validation procedure that guarantees the completeness, correctness and coherence of information. A filtering system is used in the EAPS for data entry in which errors or inconsistencies are detected. Afterwards, a second filtering process is applied to each collection centre and lastly, a centralised filtering is carried out in which the errors detected in the main variables are corrected manually and the rest of variables are filtered automatically.
Regarding the validation of the crossings for the incorporation of data on geographic mobility, the following actions are carried out:
*) Exhaustive filtering of the identification link of persons 16 years of age or over included the EAPS sample; comparing the personal data and data regarding residence that is registered in the INE Municipal Register Database, with the data obtained from the EAPS sample.
*) Comparison of coherence between the information on geographical mobility obtained from the consultation of the Municipal Register Database and the EAPS sample.
The data compilation process is carried out in the following stages:
1. The INE Municipal Register Database monthly compiles all registers and delistings of persons resident in the national territory (register variations)
2. Once the EAPS interviews are performed in the first quarter of the corresponding year, there is an initial linking between the personal data of the survey respondents over 16 years of age in the EAPS and the INE Municipal Register Database. Among other data, this allows obtaining the national identification card number or the number of the document that substitutes the national identification card for foreign nationals and is included in the INE database.
3. Later, using the identification numbers previously obtained, the INE Municipal Register Database is consulted again so as to obtain the last residential variation prior to the reference week of the EAPS survey. The relevant data regarding this consultation is the following:
*)Current municipality of registration
*)Date of registration in current municipality
*) Previous municipality or country of registration
*)Municipality or country of birth
4. The following supplementary variables on geographical mobility are obtained from the combination of the administrative variables obtained from the use of the INE Municipal Register Database along with the demographic variables of the EAPS:
*) Time (in years) residing in the current municipality
*) Location of the previous municipality of residence regarding the current one
*) Relationship between the previous type of environment and the current one
*) Location of the municipality of birth regarding the current one
Regarding the previous municipality or country of origin, there are occasions in which there is no information in the INE Municipal Register Database (registers by omission) . In these cases, the municipality or country of birth is indicated as the place of origin.
There are no seasonal adjustments as it is a structural survey.
There are no measurement adjustments for elevation factors calculated for the EAPS because the object of study is not to obtain the total population but to obtain values referring to specific labour groups (basically employed and unemployed persons)
For those interested parties, there is information regarding the Economically Active Population Survey (EAPS) available in: