The main objective of Foreclosure Statistics is to offer each quarter the number of foreclosure certifications that begun and were registered in Land Registries, regarding the total of rustic and urban properties.
It is worth noting that all foreclosures that begin, do not end with the eviction of its owners.
Eviction is a procedure specific to eviction proceedings, and it consists in physically removing the occupants out of a property. If the property is abandoned voluntarily, eviction will not be necessary.
The target population of study is the group of Land Registries.
The statistical unit is each foreclosure certification begun and registered in the corresponding land registry.
The statistical population is the total of foreclosure certifications begun and registered in the land registries of the entire national territory.
The geographical scope of these statistics encompasses the entire national territory.
These statistics have a quarterly frequency.
These statistics started to be published in June 2014, with reference to the data of the first quarter of 2014.
The reference period is the calendar quarter.
Data referred to the period: Trimestral A: 2019 TRI: IV
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2017-2020, approved by Royal Decree 410/2016, of 31 October, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2017-2020. (Statistics of the State Administration).
The Property, Mercantile and Real Estate Registrar Association of Spain, through its Information Systems Service, supplies the information to the INE in a centralised fashion, via computer media, by virtue of a partnership that already exists in other statistics of the same scope.
The data from the statistics is sent at land registry level, corresponding to the Autonomous Communities requesting it.
For the requests made on these statistics, the data that has a small volume is anonymised.
The statistics are disseminated quarterly.
Specific publications are not carried out. The results of the statistics are disseminated through the INE website, and some results are included in general publications such as the Statistical Yearbook, INE Figures, etc.
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.
All the information regarding these statistics is available at www.ine.es. It may be accessed via INEbase / Economy / Financial and monetary statistics or via the following link:
Users may not access the microdata.
There is the option of requesting customised information from the INE Customer Service Area. Limitations to confidentiality or precision are borne in mind at the time of processing said requests.
The technical project of the statistical operation is available in:
Fields 10.6 to 17 of this document are the user-oriented quality report for this operation.
Quality assurance framework for the INE statistics is based on the ESSCoP, the European Statistics Code of Practice made by EUROSTAT. The ESSCoP is made up of 16 principles, gathered in three areas: Institutional Environment, Processes and Products. Each principle is associated with some indicators which make possible to measure it. In order to evaluate quality, EUROSTAT provides different tools: the indicators mentioned above, Self-assessment based on the DESAP model, peer review, user satisfaction surveys and other proceedings for evaluation.
The data is received monthly from the Mercantile and Real Estate Registrar Association of Spain (CORPME) and undergo a filtering process.
Once the information is filtered, a stage begins regarding the imputation and estimation of the possible lack of response from the land registries.
In order to obtain national data regarding foreclosures on owned regular dwellings, the information provided by CORPME is crossed with common regime territory data of the General Directorate for Cadastre and the Municipal Registry database which is coordinated by the INE, in accordance with the legislation in force.
Foreclosure Statistics is a high-quality operation that meets all criteria of coherence, comparability, precision and timeliness.
It consists in a statistical operation based on registry information that is compiled based on the processing and crossing of administrative data, which significantly reduces its cost regarding other operations in which field work is necessary.
Statistics users include:
- Ministries and other public bodies.
- Territorial administrations (Autonomous Communities, councils...), for dissemination of their territorial data.
- Companies and non-profit institutions.
- Media professionals for the compilation of journalistic articles.
Each one of these users has different needs, according to the purpose and use they will make of the information they require.
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016 and 2019 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...
On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)
The specific needs of users, which are not covered with the information provided by these statistics, are taken into account whenever customised requests are carried out, and to the extent possible are incorporated in the statistics when the methodology is updated.
There is no regulation that establishes the variables that shall be provided by these statistics; nevertheless, it is always intended to provide the users with all the information they need, as detailed in 13.2
The statistics meet all the information requirements of the National Statistical Plan in the short-term information section for financial statistics.
The procedure for collection, coverage control, error filtering and imputation of non-response enables obtaining a high degree of reliability in the statistics.
The data of these statistics are obtained exhaustively from the Land Registries, with no sampling, therefore there are no sampling errors.
To correct for non-sampling errors, such as non-response, estimates are carried out by stratum. The information is stratified by stratum and province, assigning the value of the stratum to that unit which, on the closing date of the provisional data, has not sent its information.
Specific information is also available regarding the non-response rate, which is less than 10%.
The data regarding the statistics is published approximately 90 days after the reference quarter of the information.
The dissemination of the data is carried out in accordance with the short-term statistics availability calendar that the INE compiles and publishes for each year.
These statistics, in all of their phases, are processed in the same way for the entire territory. In this way, the results are perfectly comparable for any geographical breakdown.
Continuity in the methodology applied since the implementation of the statistics allows its comparability in time, therefore all the variables published on a quarterly basis are comparable. The serie has a length of 24 periods.
The statistics follow the same trend as the Real Estate Statistics compiled by the Registrar Association, in its Mortgage Default section.
The data have complete internal coherence, as they are based on the same set of microdata, and are calculated using the same estimation methods. The arithmetic and accounting identities in the production of data sets are observed.
It is convenient to highlight that these statistics do not involve a burden on the respondent, as the information is collected from an administrative register.
The estimation of the budgetary credit necessary to finance the Foreclosure Statistics in the Annual Program 2020 comes to a total of 28.16 thousand euros.
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).
This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow: routine revision- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-; more extensive revision- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and exceptional revision- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.
For some statistics, in which users particularly value having data as soon as possible, the initial estimates are published with the expectation that they might be revised and updated when new data is available. This is characteristic of short-term statistics, such as the monthly or quarterly statistics.
Provisional statistical data are disseminated on a quarterly basis, and when revised, final data are published.
MAR and RMAR calculated with the total foreclosure variable.
All of the information regarding begun foreclosures is obtained from the information contained in the Land Registries throughout the national territory.
The data is collected monthly.
The Registrar Association sends the data in an encrypted file via e-mail, to the Subdirectorate General for Information and Communication Technologies.
The data file sent by the Mercantile and Real Estate Registrar Association of Spain (CORPME) undergoes filtering and validation programmes to correct possible errors. In the first filtering phase the errors are revised so as to rectify or leave them as correct. In case of doubt, the CORPME is queried about those abnormal records. Next, a second filtering or checking phase is performed of all the work done in the first phase. Prior to tabulation for the quarterly publication, a series of variable checking and evolution reports are compiled.
In the first filtering phase, errors and inconsistencies in the variables for each record are detected and filtered, and content errors are also filtered and imputed. In the second filtering phase, all the work carried out in the first phase is strengthened.
No adjustments are made.