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The objective of the Industrial Price Index (IPRI) is to measure the evolution of the prices of industrial products manufactured and sold on the domestic market, in the first step of their commercialisation, that is to say, the sales prices of products coming out of the factory, excluding transport and commercialisation costs and charged VAT.
The IPRI covers all industrial sectors, excluding construction. In other words it investigates the branches of extractive, manufacturing, electricity supply, gas supply and water supply industries, which correspond to sections B, C, D and E of the CNAE-2009.
The respondent unit is the establishment. The IPRI tracks the evolution of the prices of industrial products manufactured and sold on the domestic market during their first commercialisation stage.
The target population is the set of establishments that manufacture industrial products and sell them on the domestic market.
The geographic area is all national territory, except Ceuta and Melilla.
The disaggregated information is calculated by Autonomous Community.
The survey results are available from January 1975.
The base period or reference period for the index is the year 2015 (2015=100).
Price reference period
This is the period whose prices are compared with current prices, that is to say, the period chosen for the calculation of the elementary indices.
With the calculation formula used for IPRI base 2015 – chain-linked Laspeyres – the price reference period changes every year and it is the month of December of the year immediately prior to the one being considered.
Weight reference period
This is the period to which the data obtained from the weights that serve as the IPRI structure refer.
For the current year, the calculation of IPRI weights, base 2015, have been carried out through data from the Structural Business Survey: industrial sector and the Industrial Companies Survey updated with information of prices to refer them to December of the year immediately prior to the one being considered.
Weights are updated annually.
Indices are calculated as a quotient between the average price of the current month and the average price of December of the previous year (multiplied by 100). In this way, there are no units.
All variations are calculated as percentages of variation.
The weight of a product or aggregate is the corresponding percentage given by the production value of the given product or aggregate over the total production value. The units used are per thousand.
The reference period for the data is the month, specifically the 15th day.
Data referred to the period: Mensual A: 2021 MES: 01
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2017-2020, approved by Royal Decree 410/2016, of 31 October, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2017-2020. (Statistics of the State Administration).
The IPRIare subject to Council Regulation (EC) No. 1165/98 of 19 May 1998 concerning short-term statistics, which establishes the common framework for the production of Community statistics on the short-term evolution of the economic cycle, the Regulation (EU) 2019/2152 of the European Parliament and of the Council on European business statistics, repealing 10 legal acts in the field of business statistics (EBS-Regulation) and the Commission Implementing Regulation 2020/1197 laying down technical specifications and arrangements pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2019/2152 of the European Parliament and of the Council on European business statistics repealing 10 legal acts in the field of business statistic (General Implementing Act)
The Spanish version of the European Union regulations that affect this statistical operation can be found at:
With regards to the IPRI, agreements exist with some Autonomous Communitiesâ statistical institutions to allow them to further break down the published findings relating to their communities.
In the IPRI, information is not provided on those branches that do not have a minimum number of respondents.
The IPRI is released monthly.
Press release, day of publication.
Generic publications such as España en Cifras [Spain in Figures] and the Anuario Estadistico de España [Statistical Yearbook of Spain] contain information on the IPRI.
The monograph publication Panorama de la Industria [Industry Overview] also provides information on this survey.
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.
The online database of the IPRI, which contains information on both indices and variations and on weights, is in the section Industry, energy and construction of INEBase. The online database of the IPRI can be accessed via the following link: https://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/en/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736147699&menu=ultiDatos&idp=1254735576715
The number of consultations of data tables is AC1=150627.
In the case of the IPRI, information on microdata is not provided.
It is possible to request tailored information through INE Information Area. When processing these requests, limitations on confidentiality or accuracy must be borne in mind.
The methodological documents of the IPRI are within the "Industry, energy and construction" section of INEBase: Methodology
The rate of completeness of metadata is AC3=100%.
The sections 10.6 to 17 of this document are the User-oriented Quality report for this statistics.
Based on Regulation (EC) No 1165/98 of the Council, the Commission submits a report on the pertinence, quality and revision of indicators of short-term statistics to the European Parliament and Council every three years. The 2017 report can be found at the following link:
Quality assurance framework for the INE statistics is based on the ESSCoP, the European Statistics Code of Practice made by EUROSTAT. The ESSCoP is made up of 16 principles, gathered in three areas: Institutional Environment, Processes and Products. Each principle is associated with some indicators which make possible to measure it. In order to evaluate quality, EUROSTAT provides different tools: the indicators mentioned above, Self-assessment based on the DESAP model, peer review, user satisfaction surveys and other proceedings for evaluation.
The Industrial Price Indices have a preparation process designed to control quality and to validate data throughout the whole process. To guarantee the quality of the statistics there are validation controls in the electronic questionnaire, a data checking process in the collection units and a control by the unit concerned.
Furthermore, the IPRI is an indicator of high statistical quality, which complies with all coherence, comparability, accuracy and opportunity criteria. Its methodology follows the recommendations of the "Producer Price Index Manual: Theory and Practice" published by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and internationally agreed upon.
The entry into force of the 2010 base, in January 2013, represented a methodological improvement, as a new calculation system based on the chain-linking of indices was introduced whose most important aspects were its dynamism and relevance. Thanks to this, modifications can be made to the samples each year, which guarantees that the indices remain up-to-date.
The IPRI, base 2015, maintains the main aspects of the IPRI, base 2010, and, in line with this, the weights will be revised annually to a certain level of functional disaggregation.
The IPRI is an up to day indicator since it revises its methodological system permanently in order to improve it. Besides, it is dynamic, because annually it reviews the weights for certain levels of functional disaggregation and includes in the shortest time any change detected in the market: the appearance of new products, changes in the production structure or in the sample of establishments. In addition, it establishes the base changes every five years, carrying out a complete review of the methodology and the sample and the updating of weights at all levels of disaggregation.
Therefore, and thanks to the calculation methodology applied, it is an indicator with a high representativeness.
The main users of the IPRI are:
- Ministries and other public bodies.
- Regional administrations (Autonomous Communities, municipalities, etc.).
- Companies and institutions.
- Economic analysts and universities.
The applications of the IPRI notably include:
- Its direct use as an indicator for the analysis of price inflation in the different states of production. Furthermore, it is a useful tool for analysts and businesses to analyse given products or markets.
- Its indirect use as a deflator, to convert data on values at current prices into data at constant prices, or to deflate the series in value of the industrial production index.
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016 and 2019 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...
On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)
The specific needs of users are borne in mind whenever methodological revisions of the survey are carried out, with the objective of adapting the contents of the same to the specific requirements of its users, increasing satisfaction levels in this way.
In the IPRI base 2010, information requests by users were noted and more data began to be published at a more disaggregated level of CNAE 2009. In the IPRI base 2015, the aforementioned level of disaggregation was maintained.
Indices are prepared for all levels of the CNAE 2009, from 1 to 4 digits.
The rate of mandatory statistical results available for the IPRI, base 2015, is R1=100%.
The sample is designed using the cut-off method, for which there are no sampling errors. Regarding non-sampling errors, various survey processes are aimed at eliminating or reducing these possible errors as much as possible, both in the collection phase (response rate and data checking) and the subsequent editing and imputation phases.
Sampling errors are not calculated for the IPRI because the sample is based on non-probabilistic methods (cut-off method).
The Industrial Price Indices have a high response rate of around 95%.
Estimates and quality adjustments are carried out to correct non-sampling errors such as a lack of response or modifications of the characteristics of a company's products.
Data are estimated by applying the same variation as the rest of the same product's prices to the previous period's price. In the event that there is insufficient data on the product to carry out an estimate, the variation of the products of the same branch is applied.
In 2020, the non-response rate corresponding to the year average is A4=7,6%, the item non-response rate is A5=11,1%, the rate of over-coverage is A2=2,8% and the imputation rate is A7=11,8%.
In accordance with what is established in the Regulation, the deadline for transmitting data to Eurostat is 35 days after the end of the reference period.
This deadline is met as the IPRI results, at all levels of disaggregation, are published on the 25th of the month following the reference month. In this way, the timeliness of first results is TP1=25 days and the timeliness of final results is TP2=3 months and 25 days.
The results of the survey are published in accordance with INE's short-term statistics availability calendar (https://www.ine.es/daco/daco41/calen.htm)
All IPRI publications have been published on the date announced in the publications calendar, therefore, the punctuality (time lag in the publication) is TP3=0.
The IPRI data are fully comparable between Autonomous Communities, as all stages of the calculation method of this statistic are the same throughout the national territory.
On the other hand, to compare the IPRI between European Union countries, the STS Regulation and the methodological directives applied by countries ensure good comparability between national data and European aggregates.
However, the data are not 100% comparable from one country to another, as neither collection methods (surveys can be carried out or administrative sources can be used) nor index calculation procedures are harmonised in the aforementioned regulation.
The IPRI has been calculated since January 1975 and since then there have been different changes in the classifications used and various base changes have been made.
Since January 2009, the National Classification of Economic Activities 2009 (CNAE-2009) has been utilised, in accordance with Royal Decree 475/2007 of 13 April 2007. The indices are available from their beginning following the new classification.
Links have been made in all base changes and the time series is comparable from its start in January 1975. In this way, up to December 2020, the length of comparable time series is CC2=552.
The IPRI is coherent with the Export Price Indices for Industrial Products (IPRIX), which measures the evolution of the prices of industrial products manufactured on the domestic market and sold on the non-domestic market, as they are designed in the same way and use the same calculation methodology.
From base 2010, the joint results of both indicators (IPRI + IPRIX) began to be published, which measures the evolution of the prices of industrial products manufactured in Spain, regardless whether these goods were destined for the domestic or non-domestic market.
The IPRI results are internally coherent. The aggregations are carried from the lowest level of information to the highest, both geographically and functionally.
The estimate of the necessary budgetary appropriation to fund this statistic, as provided for in the 2021 Annual Programme, is 1183.52 thousand Euros.
With the aim of significantly reducing the burden of the respondent units, there is a special unit that coordinates all the questionnaires of large businesses that complete multiple surveys in the same year. The statistical burden of the respondent units is considered in the modifications that are made in the sample, with the aim of not overburdening the time that they dedicate to its completion.
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).
This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow: routine revision- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-; more extensive revision- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and exceptional revision- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.
The IPRI results can be revised within a period of three months following their publication.
The differences that may be noted between the provisional data and the final data are due to the lack of availability of the data in the provisional publication, because of late receipt of the questionnaire. The modifications to published data are indicated in the press release for their acknowledgement.
To measure the degree of variation between the provisional and final results, the changes between the first and last publications for the period between January 2018 and December 2020 (36 data) are analysed, obtaining:
- For the year-on-year growth rate of the general index:
Mean absolute revision is A6-MAR = 0.075
Relative mean absolute revision is A6-RMAR = 2.078%
Mean Revision is A6-MR = -0.005
The data used to prepare the IPRI are obtained through surveying industrial establishments. The survey covers all the establishments that sell products that are manufactured and sold on the domestic Spanish market, except Ceuta and Melilla.
The criteria used to define which activities form part of the IPRI calculations, base 2015, are the following: at the national level, classes (4 digit CNAE-09) that exceeded 0.1% of the total industry turnover were included, and at the Autonomous Community level, divisions (2 digit CNAE-09) that exceeded 1.0% of the total industry turnover of each Community were included (according to data from the 2015 Structural Business Survey: industrial sector).
In the IPRI, base 2015, approximately 28,000 prices relating to 1,500 products were collected monthly in a survey of 9,000 industrial establishments.
Prices are collected once a month and referred to the actual price on the 15h day of the reference month.
Prices are collected for the IPRI through a questionnaire sent to the industrial establishments that form part of the sample. The majority of respondents (75%) complete the questionnaires through IRIA (Internet), whilst the rest sent complete questionnaires by email, fax, telephone or ordinary post.
The questionnaire features products for which the industrial establishment has to record the price, along with a detailed description of its characteristics, allowing the company to identify the exact product.
In each collection unit, it was verified that all information requested by the questionnaire was completed and that issues related to the companies, establishments, sub-varieties and prices were properly justified and explained. Then a centralised data cleaning is done, with the aim of detecting possible errors or unjustified variations in prices.
- Data checking
As a general rule, when any anomaly is detected in the sub-varieties or their prices during the validation process, the respondent will be contacted for a justification or correction where the characteristics (both physical and commercial) or the unit of measure for the sub-variety have changed.
- Index Compilation
Firstly, elementary indices, such as the quotient of the geometric mean between the prices collected in the month and the prices collected in December of the previous year, are calculated.
Then, elementary indices are aggregated using a weighted arithmetic mean.
The main sources of IPRI weights are the Industrial Companies Survey and the Industrial Products Survey.
There are weights for every product in every Autonomous Community.
- Treatment of missing items
When, occasionally, the price of a product has not been recorded, the company is contacted to see if it is possible to estimate the price that the operation had.
In the case that this is not possible, the price will be estimated through the variations of the rest of the prices of this product or its corresponding branch.
-Treatment of replacement products
When a sub-variety disappears, the respondent is contacted to establish whether this is temporary or permanent. In the case that this absence is permanent, an attempt will be made to substitute it for another of the same product.
In the case that this establishment does not have a substitute for the product, an attempt will be made to find another establishment that will provide information.
- Adjustments for quality change
When there is a change in the specifications of a sub-variety or it disappears and is substituted for another, an adjustment should be made to determine how much of the price difference between the two sub-varieties is due to a difference in quality between the two.
In general terms, estimated prices are used to make this adjustment. This method involves the estimation of a relative price change as the average price change of the aggregate that contains the sub-variety (product or branch).
No seasonal adjustment is applied.