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The Statistics on Products in the Trade Sector (SPTS) is a statistical operation of structural nature and with annual periodicity whose data collection is carried out by means of questionnaires attached to those for the Structural Business Statistics (SBS): Trade Sector and addressed to the same units included in its sample. Therefore, these two operations are fully integrated and share the same methodology in terms of their scope of study, survey design, classification variables, collection and information processing.
Note on Statistics on Products in the Trade Sector. For the purposes of statistical results, the SPTS is integrated with the SBS under its version based on Legal Units.
Note on Structural Business Statistics: Trade Sector. According to the European Statistical System, Structural Business Statistics have implemented a new practical application of the statistical concept of ‘Enterprise' for reference year 2018. Under this new approach, an Enterprise may be made up of one or more Legal Units, and in the latter case, the Statistical Enterprise will include the economic and employment variables of the Legal Units that comprise it. This criterion differs from the one previously applied where each separate Legal Unit was considered an enterprise. In order for users to be able to compare the EEE data under the traditional approach (based on separate Legal Units) and the new approach (based on the concept of Statistical Enterprises), for the 2018 reference year, INE disseminated both versions of statistical results.
The main objective of the Statistics on Products in the Trade Sector is to ascertain the specific characteristics of each of the sub-sectors that make up Trade (Trade and vehicle repair, Wholesale trade and Retail trade) in order to carry out a more precise sectoral analysis adapted to each economic activity.
Specific variables for each particular sector. These collect information on the characteristics of each sector. Some examples:
In relation to the main activity of the companies, the survey uses the National Classification of Economic Activities (CNAE-2009) to stratify, categorise, process and disseminate their data.
The National Classification of Products by Activity (CPA-2008) is used for product coding.
The target population of the Statistics on Products in the Trade Sector is made up of legal units (companies, corporations and individuals) whose main activity is described in section G of the National Classification of Economic Activities (CNAE-2009) which includes the following divisions:
The statistical unit is the company that carries out the provision of any of the services included in the population scope as a main economic activity. The company is also the respondent unit because, as it is perfectly defined and located and has the accounting and employment data available, the response is provided and homogeneous information is obtained.
Note: The SPTS considers each Legal Unit that produces goods or services as an Enterprise. Its results are, therefore, integrated with the Structural Business Statistics: Trade Sector under its traditional approach based on Legal Units.
The target population of this statistical operation is made up of companies, corporations and individuals, whose main activity is described in section G of the National Classification of Economic Activities (CNAE-2009).
Each of these activity groups constitutes an independent population for sampling purposes.
From a geographical point of view, this statistic covers the whole of the national territory.
No results are published that are broken down geographically.
This statistic is conducted on an annual basis.
There are results available from the reference year 2005 to 2007 using the CNAE-93 as the classification of economic activities; from the reference year 2008 onwards, the CNAE-2009 is used.
Results for this statistic are available from the reference year 2005.
The reference period for the data is the calendar year.
Data referred to the period: Anual A: 2020
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2021-2024, approved by Royal Decree 1110/2020, of 15 December, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2021-2024. (Statistics of the State Administration).
The Statistics on Products in the Trade Sector falls within the category of structural surveys according to Regulation 295/2008 of the European Union Parliament and Council on structural business statistics, specifically in its Annex III.
The Statistics Institute of Catalonia participates in the translation of the questionnaires.
The Statistical Law No. 12/1989 specifies that the INE cannot publish, or make otherwise available, individual data or statistics that would enable the identification of data for any individual person or entity. Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society
Disaggregation levels have been designed in the tabulation plan that are not affected by confidential data. For tailored requests, cell suppression is used to preserve statistical confidentiality.
The advance release calendar that shows the precise release dates for the coming year is disseminated in the last quarter of each year.
The calendar is disseminated on the INEs Internet website (Publications Calendar)
The data are released simultaneously according to the advance release calendar to all interested parties by issuing the press release. At the same time, the data are posted on the INE's Internet website (www.ine.es/en) almost immediately after the press release is issued. Also some predefined tailor-made requests are sent to registered users. Some users could receive partial information under embargo as it is publicly described in the European Statistics Code of Practice
This statistic is published annually, simultaneously with the publication of the definitive results of the Structural Business Statistics: Trade Sector.
The results of the statistical operations are normally disseminated by using press releases that can be accessed via both the corresponding menu and the Press Releases Section in the web
The results of the survey are published on the INE Website (https://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/en/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736176903&menu=resultados&idp=1254735576799) and some results are included in publications such as the Anuario Estadistico (Statistical Yearbook), Cifras INE (INE figures), etc.
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.
Access to tables and time series:
From www.ine.es : On INEbase in the "Services" section by selecting Trade and then "Statistics of products in the trade sector":
Number of consultations of data tables: AC1=6,716 consultations in 2021.
No microdata file is provided for this statistical operation.
Microdata files are only provided to other statistical bodies (Statistics Institutes of the Autonomous Communities) which also have the obligation to preserve statistical confidentiality.
The data, which is published annually, aims to provide basic and relevant information on the main results of the survey in order to satisfy the demand for information from its various users.
It is worth noting that the year-on-year variations obtained from the results of this survey may sometimes (and to a greater or lesser extent) be due to changes in the structure of the corresponding reference populations (for example, activity changes in certain companies that result in their being assigned to a different activity sector from the previous year, etc.), and thereforethe aforementioned variations must not be directly associated with a change of the same magnitude in the productive activity of the group of companies in a given sector or sub-population in all cases.
Finally, it is important to point out that the publication of the survey is not limited exclusively to the tables offered here or included in the publication. Safeguarding the restrictions arising from statistical confidentiality or from the survey sample type, the existing computer procedures allow for tailored requests for aggregated data, which can be provided in the support or format chosen by the user.
The request is made through the Information Area https://www.ine.es/prodyser/informacion
A detailed description is available at:
Pursuant to Regulations 275/2010 of the Commission and 295/2008 of the European Parliament and Council, the European Commission (Eurostat) assesses the quality of the data provided and publishes reports on the quality of European statistics. To this end, each country provides information on the variation coefficients for the characteristics collected therein and with the level of disaggregation requested, as well as non-response data. The quality report contains both quantitative and qualitative information. Eurostat provides information on the main quantitative indicators, calculated from the data provided by Member States.
This standardised methodological report contains all elements that are considered as a "User-oriented Quality Report" for this operation.
Quality assurance framework for the INE statistics is based on the ESSCoP, the European Statistics Code of Practice made by EUROSTAT. The ESSCoP is made up of 16 principles, gathered in three areas: Institutional Environment, Processes and Products. Each principle is associated with some indicators which make possible to measure it. In order to evaluate quality, EUROSTAT provides different tools: the indicators mentioned above, Self-assessment based on the DESAP model, peer review, user satisfaction surveys and other proceedings for evaluation.
The process of preparing the statistic has established controls to detect and correct errors in order to guarantee the quality of the statistic.
This error control is carried out from the filtering phase up to the sending of the final series required by Eurostat. During the questionnaire filtering phase, measures are taken to reduce non-response.
In addition to the controls recommended by the European body, the last phase includes other internal controls to guarantee a final product of sufficient quality.
Commission Regulation 275/2010 provides that the Commission shall evaluate the data sent by the different Member States for the statistics of the SBS Regulation (EC) No 295/2008, according to the quality criteria listed in Article 12(1) of Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 of the European Parliament and Council, namely: relevance, accuracy, timeliness, punctuality, accessibility, clarity, comparability and coherence.
The statistics can be considered of high quality given that a sufficiently representative sample of the target population is procured for each stratum of activity and company size. In addition, the data is subjected to adjustment criteria and year-on-year checks, as well as cross-checks with data from administrative registers, such as those provided in the commercial register.
The survey users include:
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016 and 2019 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...
On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)
In the quality section of the INE website, there are different "User Satisfaction Surveys" where the group (Services) in which this statistical operation is classified is evaluated. These results can give an idea of the opinion of users regarding this operation.
The survey conforms to the information requirements according to Regulation (EC) no. of the European Parliament and the Council regarding Structural Business Statistics as well as according to Decision no. 1297/2008 of the European Parliament and the Council related to the Modernisation of European Enterprise and Trade Statistics (MEETS).
It appears in the 2021-2024 National Statistics Plan in the section on structural information for the services sector and in the EU Statistical Programme: Annual company statistics.
Rate of completeness of the data: R1=100%
The sampling design attempts to minimise sampling errors and the different survey processes are aimed at eliminating or reducing, as far as possible, survey errors, both in the collection phase (response rate and filtering control) and in subsequent filtering and imputing phases.
The collection procedure, coverage control, filtering of errors and imputing the non-response provides a high degree of statistical reliability.
Sampling errors are calculated for the main variables at different levels of disaggregation.
Unbiased estimators have been used in the stratified sampling with a correction of the directory according to the type of incidence presented.
Sampling error for Turnover variable: A1 = 0.19%
A control of non-sampling errors is carried out throughout the statistical process. Specific information on the non-response rate is also available.
Over-coverage rate: A2=8.8%
Non-response rate by unit: A4=17.3%
Regulation 295/2008 on Structural Business Statistics (SBS) requires the availability of results within 18 months of the end of the reference period. This target is complied with, with the statistic's Final Data is being published before the end of this deadline.
Opportunity final results: TP2 = t+17 months+ 9 days
Data is published according to the availability calendar of structural statistics that the INE prepares and publishes for each year.
The availability of a common methodology, design and process of collection, filtering, editing and updating in all its geographical scope, guarantees the comparability of the results between the different Autonomous Communities. On the other hand, the methodological adaptation to the SBS regulation makes it possible to compare with the other European Union countries that disseminate this same information for their respective sectors.
The use of the same National Classification of Economic Activities allows the comparison of the survey information with other economic statistics (such as short-term surveys on the Trade Sector) and with the Central Business Register (Directorio Central de Empresas DIRCE).
It is comparable at the international level, it covers the information needs of the statistic's various users and it is a useful instrument for the National Accounts. Furthermore, it serves as a framework for updating short-term indicators and for studying the changes that have occurred in the sector.
Coherence is a fundamental matter both in the survey methodology approach and in the whole preparation process. The coherence between the variables is compared in all phases of the statistical process.
Statistics are internally consistent (e.g., arithmetic and accounting identities are observed) and consistent or reconcilable over a reasonable period of time.
INE, aware of the statistical burden borne by companies, attempts to apply certain measures in its surveys to reduce this burden as far as possible and, in any case, to facilitate the completion of the information required from the respondents.
Below are some of the measures adopted in this operation to reduce the statistical burden:
The estimate of the budgetary appropriation necessary to finance this statistic foreseen in the 2022 Annual Programme is 31.39 thousand euros.
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).
This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow: routine revision- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-; more extensive revision- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and exceptional revision- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.
There is no data review.
Data is published when definitive, it is not subject to review.
The SPTS investigates the same sample of legal units selected for the Structural Business Statistics: Trade Sector.
The details relating to the population frame (DIRCE- Business Register), type of sampling (stratified), allocation between strata (optimum), sample selection (random in each stratum of a non-comprehensive type), sample estimators and sampling errors can be consulted in the Methodological Notes of the Structural Business Statistics of the Trade Sector.
In the document "Structural Business Statistics. Methodology" available on the INE website, more details can be consulted on the sample design, estimators and how sampling errors are calculated.
Data is collected annually. For reference year t, the collection takes place from April to December of year t+1.
The information is collected annually, simultaneously with that of the Structural Business Statistics: Trade Sector, through the INE Collection Units.
Questionnaire completion via the internet is encouraged as much as possible, a method that reaches over 90% of the total number of questionnaires collected. However, respondents have other response channels available (fax, postal mail, telephone or electronic questionnaire sent by e-mail).
In addition, the collection units are responsible for manning the telephone lines to resolve questions from respondents and for recording and filtering questionnaires. Errors and anomalous data are subject to revision, establishing, if necessary, new telephone contact with respondents.
During the questionnaire collection phase, a first filtering and coding process is carried out. Both the electronic questionnaires that the respondents fill out on the Internet, as well the application for the management, recording and filtering of the collection used by the INE collection units, have systems programmed for the detection of errors to validate the data as they are entered by the user. It distinguishes between serious type errors (which must be necessarily corrected) and anomalies of a second level (which, after confirmation, must be justified). In addition, during data collection and filtering, measures are also taken to reduce non-response.
The records made by Collection Units form and supply, at least fortnightly, the complete record files on which the subsequent phases of the joint information processing are carried out. These files are processed in the Central Services where information coverage is controlled to guarantee completeness of the recorded data, detect duplicates and coverage errors and at the same time carry out an initial assessment of the quality of the variables collected.
Compilation of the information of the sample Legal Units
As the collection progresses and the complete recording files are formed, the data is subjected to additional micro-filtration controls at Central Services focused, selectively, on the detection and filtering of errors and inconsistencies in the variables of each record, as well as the filtering and imputation of content errors. Depending on the characteristics of each type of error, automatic imputation procedures are used in certain cases. Likewise, systematic errors detected in previously studies and analyses on recorded data are corrected.
Since reference year 2016 various methodological improvements have been applied to the Structural Business Statistics, included in the "Integration Project of the Structural Economic Surveys". The aforementioned improvements are related to the treatment of companies that cause the target population to rise or fall in the reference year, as well as the imputation of non-response. On the other hand, the estimation of employment variables has been improved by using administrative sources.
For internal methodological studies, the conclusion was made that reconsidering the non-response brought with it a certain overestimation of monetary variables, as a significant part of the non-response is only active during part of the reference year. For this reason, a decision was made to substitute this re-weighting with the application of different imputation techniques, based on administrative data. The minimum aim of these imputations was that both the turnover and the number of employees corresponds to the company's own value and during the year in question. The rest of the variables are imputed, using highly correlated administrative information, conditional on the two variables, which guarantees the global coherence of the imputed records.
For the effective sample (which, as explained, has included the non-response since 2016), elevation factors are calculated to determine the estimates of different variables. The last stage, before the tabulation and release of the results, is obtaining analysis tables through macro-filtration techniques to eliminate the errors and inconsistencies detected. The data are also subjected to comparisons with other statistics (e.g., other short-term INE surveys on the sectors studied) and with information from administrative sources, in order to guarantee a final product of sufficient quality.
No seasonal adjustments are made.