Avenida de Manoteras 50-52 - 28050 Madrid
The Statistics on the Wages of Persons with Disabilities (WPD) provides data on the earnings of workers with disabilities, and does so in comparative terms, with workers without disabilities.
It researches the distribution of the wages of those persons who have certified disabilities, based on a large variety of variables, such as sex, occupation, years at the post, the type and degree of disability or measures for encouraging employment, among others.
The statistics “The wages of people with disabilities” is prepared using the surveys of wage structure conducted by INE and the State database of people with disabilities (BEPD) of the Institute of higher and social services (IMSERSO).
Data with reference period 2010 (and in the future, 2014) are made with the four-year survey of wage structure (WSS). For those years in which this survey is not carried out (2011, 2012,...) the Annual Wage Structure Survey (AWSS) is used instead.
The BEPD is a registration system, on a statewide scope, of the assessment files of persons with disabilities. It provides information regarding the features of those citizens who have officially been recognised as persons with disabilities by the State administrative bodies with jurisdiction.
In 1991, the IMSERSO implemented a new classification of impairments, in order to adapt it to the required information and to the contents of the assessment or evaluation. The objective is to register, in the BEPD, those alterations that have led to the disability (impairment codes). The impairment codes used are specified in the methodological manual: "hyperlink with INEbase when operative."
The following groupings are considered of the type of disability, according to the impairment:
The WPD has considered only those records of persons with a degree of disability greater than or equal to 33%.
For tabulation purposes, the following classification is considered for the degree of disability variables:
The following groups based on classification NCO-2011 are considered:
The following activity sectors based on CNAE-2009 are considered:
EDUCATION (educational level)
The following categories are considered:
Population coverage: the population scope comprises all workers employed by others who provide services in contribution centres, regardless of their size, and who have been registered with Social Security for at least 2 months during the reference year of the information, one of which is the month of October. It excludes all chairpersons, members of administrative boards, and in general, all personnel whose remuneration is not mainly in the form of wages, but rather commissions or benefits.
Coverage by degree of disability: Degree greater than or equal to 33%.
Coverage by branch of activity: this excludes agricultural, livestock and fishing activities; it partially excludes the Public Administration, Defence and compulsory Social Security (but includes those public employees belonging to the General Social Security Scheme); it excludes domestic personnel and extraterritorial bodies.
The procedure for the random selection of units corresponds to a stratified two-stage sampling, in which:
This includes the wage earners that make Social Security contributions under the following conditions:
The entire national territory is researched, broken down to the NUTS1 level (aggregation of Autonomous Communities).
Since disabilities are an atypical phenomenon, the size of the available subsample of persons with disabilities is not enough to be able to provide independent data for each Autonomous Community. Thus, information is provided by aggregating Autonomous Communities, and this aggregation is made by following the European standard, at the NUTS1 level.
The statistics is conducted on an annual basis.
From SPD2013, each year (a) data is published with reference to two previous years (a-2).
It is carried out by INE since 2013 with data referred to year 2010.
This corresponds to the year 2010, the first reference year studied.
For the data obtained from the survey of four-year Wage Structure Survey (WSS) there is a double reference period:
For the data obtained from the Annual Wage Structure Survey (AWSS), the reference period is annual.
Data referred to the period: Anual A: 2019
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2021-2024, approved by Royal Decree 1110/2020, of 15 December, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2021-2024. (Statistics of the State Administration).
There is a Collaboration agreement between the INE, the Directorate General for Support Policies for Persons with Disabilities, of the Ministry of Health, Consumer Affairs and Social Services and the Institute for the Elderly and Social Services (IMSERSO) for carrying out statistics regarding disabilities and the labour market.
There is a joint Agreement Monitoring Commission that includes one representative from each of the collaborating institutions.
The data exchanges between the INE and the remaining State statistical services (ministerial departments, independent bodies and public entities of the State Administration), as between these and the statistical services of the Autonomous Communities toward the development of the statistics they are in charge of, are regulated in the LFEP. The LFEP also establishes the statistical coordination mechanisms among administrations, as well as the holding of cooperation agreements when such is considered to be appropriate.
The information relating to wages is collected by the INE through the Wage Structure Surveys. The information relating to disabilities is obtained from administrative registers from the IMSERSO, and is supplemented with registers from the General Social Security Treasury (TGSS).
The information relating to measures encouraging employment is obtained from the TGSS registers.
The WPD statistis published annually.
The information is disseminated by means of a press release commenting on the main data. The reference to said press release may be viewed at:
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.
The tables may be accessed via INEbase, in the Society / Labour Market section, through the following link: https://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/en/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736176911&menu=ultiDatos&idp=1254735976596
Due to the nature of the operation (one of the sources of which is a company survey) and the small sample size, it is not anticipated that microdata will be provided, since its dissemination would compromise statistical secrecy.
There is the option of requesting tailor-made information from the INE Customer Service Area. Limitations to confidentiality or precision are borne in mind at the time of processing said requests.
A detailed methodological description may be viewed at:
Sections 10.6 to 17 of this document include the information on quality intended for users for this operation.
Quality assurance framework for the INE statistics is based on the ESSCoP, the European Statistics Code of Practice made by EUROSTAT. The ESSCoP is made up of 16 principles, gathered in three areas: Institutional Environment, Processes and Products. Each principle is associated with some indicators which make possible to measure it. In order to evaluate quality, EUROSTAT provides different tools: the indicators mentioned above, Self-assessment based on the DESAP model, peer review, user satisfaction surveys and other proceedings for evaluation.
The quality of the information from the WSS is supported by the quality procedures applied to these statistics.
The quality of the information from administrative registers is supported by the management of the registers themselves.
The quality of the WPD is guaranteed through the quality of the crosses performed, and through the coherence between the sources of data crossed. To this end, the use of data from the Municipal Register is essential.
During the implementation of this Statistics Operation, the quality evaluation of the resulting data is realised with the Follow-Up Commission of the Convention, so as to guarantee the reliability of the results.
Sampling errors, and sample sizes have been carefully examined for the analysis variables, in order to ensure the reliability of the results.
Also, comparisons with statistics the employment of people with disabilities have been made to ensure the coherence of common variables.
The Statistics The Wages of Persons with Disabilities (WPD) is a high-quality product. By using administrative data as well as consolidated surveys carried out by the INE, the information provided is of the best quality with reduced costs and null burden to the informant. In addition to this, it is a pioneer statistical operation that enables the evaluation of the labour situation of the persons with disabilities.
As to the limitations of the statistical operation, the use of surveys already carried out by the INE inherits the same limitations as all surveys due to sampling, such as non-response and the already mentioned sampling errors or coefficients of variation for estimates. In both cases, they always remain within reasonable limits.
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016 and 2019 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...
On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)
The specific needs of the aforementioned users have been presented in the Agreement Monitoring Commission, and to the extent that the sample sizes have so allowed, have been covered to date.
The information and coverage needs are presented in periodical meetings of this Commission, and are stipulated in the annual agreements.
In the year 2013, the Spanish Committee for Persons with Disabilities (CERMI) awarded the labour statistics operations of the INE.
The jury of the CERMI awards, it their XII edition, decided to award the honour in the Social and Scientific Research category to the INE annual operations regarding the employment and wages of persons with disabilities, due to its encouragement of the transversal focus of disabilities in official statistics, following the mandates of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
CERMI award link:
Disabilities are an atypical phenomenon that affects a low percentage of population, but that has significant effects on the participation of the persons affected in the labour market.
In addition, the database from which the data regarding the wages of persons with disabilities is obtained, the Wage Structure Survey, was designed for objectives other than those related to disabilities.
As a result, the sample size obtained is limited, preventing a detailed use at certain breakdown levels.
Thus, in order to have relevant information available, the values of the following variables have been grouped:
The errors that arise in the statistical process carried out for the WPD differ from those regularly occurring in the general case of surveys.
Given that the WPD is performed through the crossing of the data from the Wage Structure Surveys with the BEPD, its accuracy depends on the following:
In order to control the coverage errors of the BEPD:
In order to control the identification errors of the BEPD:
The calculation of the variation coefficients of the main variables is carried out, together with the performance of the operation, and they are published together with the results tables.
The sampling error indicator refered to the estimates of 2019 is:
For further information, see the methodology and the errors obtained in: https://www.ine.es/dynt3/inebase/index.htm?padre=1490
The non-sampling errors inherent to the "Wages of Persons with Disabilities (WPD)" statistics (excluding those produced due to carrying out the Wage Structure Survey, basis of information that is essential in the creation of the WPD) are the following:
In order to control the coverage errors of the BEPD:
In order to control the identification errors of the BEPD:
Due to the nature of these statistics based on crossing registers, the main reference measure for assessing non-sampling errors may be evaluated through an equivalent to non-response, which in this case, would be the lack of identification.
The lack of identification may be estimated via the following expression:
Lack of identification = Records without an identifier / Records involved in the crossing
Thus, for the last year published, the "Lack of identification rate", so established, stood at A4=0.0%.
It is worth noting that the presence of duplicates and deceased persons in the BEPD are studied in detailed, and to the extent that the identification of the persons in the BEPD so allows, it may be confirmed that they are detected and controlled almost in their entirety. That is, for the records that are correctly identified in the BEPD, the errors due to the incorrect inclusion of duplicates or deceased persons are minimal.
The data from the statistics depends on the availability of the data from the Wage Structure Surveys, from the State Database of Persons with Disabilities (BEPD) and from the General Social Security Treasury, relating to the sample of the Wage Structure Surveys.
As a result, this information is not available until TP2=21 months after the end of the reference period.
Each publication has been disseminated on the date announced in the publication calendar. The deadline for disseminating results is established in the collaboration agreement.
It must be considered that the concept of disability that is used is restricted to the legal term (availability of a disability certificate), and therefore, the possibility of comparisons of these statistics with any other survey on disabilities must be made under this premise.
The amount of information provided is restricted to a regional level, as the presence of disabilities among the population is an atypical phenomenon, and therefore, the sample size of the subsample of the Wage Structure Surveys of wage earners with disabilities obtained for Autonomous Communities limits the use of results therein.
In order to obtain sample coverage and reliable results, the Autonomous Communities are aggregated at a NUTS1 level.
The WPD statistics is a pioneer in the analysis of the wages of those person with disabilities, and therefore, data does not exist regarding disabilities that is comparable on a European level.
In 2013 and 2014, the "Wages of Persons with Disabilities" (WPD) statistics began as a pilot study. One of the objectives of this study is, precisely, to obtain a comparable annual series that provides data on the wages of persons with disabilities.
The data provided by the Statistics on the Wages of Persons with Disabilities (WPD) is comparable over time, since its first publication in 2013 with data referring to the year 2010, so the number of comparable items are 3.
There are differences between variables and the level of disaggregation provided by the provided by the Annual Wage Structure Survey (AWSS) and the Wage Structure Survey (WSS), therefore, two sets of data are published:
a four-year one with data obtained from the AWSS and an annual one, which provides comparable data for all published periods.
So there are CC2=10 comparable elements.
The "Wages of Persons with Disabilities" (WPD) statistics is a pioneer statistical operation that, for the first time in Spain, provides information about the wage earnings of this specific group. For these reasons, there is no possible comparison with other surveys.
Although the purpose of the Wage Structure Surveys (the basis on which the WPD relies) is not to estimate the volume of workers, in order to guarantee the quality and coherence of the estimates obtained in the WPD, we have verified that the proportion of persons with disabilities obtained from the WPD is coherent with that which is obtained for the "Employment of Persons with Disabilities" (EPD) statistics, also conducted by the INE.
Coherence is a fundamental issue, both in the planning of the methodology of the Wage Structure Surveys and in all of their preparation process. Given that the WPD is built from the data from said surveys, it automatically takes on the degree of coherence among the wage variables.
The coherence among the variables from the different administrative registers (relating to disabilities) is contrasted at all phases of the statistical process.
In the 2021 annual Program, the estimate of the necessary budget appropriation to finance this statistical operation is 36,18 thousand euros.
This operation is a low-cost model for using administrative sources, which uses efficient methods and provides periodical figures regarding an aspect that is the object of social and labour policies.
The burden on the respondents is nil as the information comes from administrative sources.
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).
This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow: routine revision- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-; more extensive revision- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and exceptional revision- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.
The information published is final, and no data revisions are performed.
The information published is final, and therefore, no data revisions are performed.
This statistical operation uses the information derived from an integration of the statistical data provided by the Wage Structure Surveys with the administrative data recorded in the State Database of Persons with Disabilities (BEPD) of the IMSERSO.
The information is supplemented with information regarding measures to encourage employment from the General Social Security Treasury (TGSS).
Moreover, it incorporates information from the Affiliation, Registration and Contribution Account files submitted by the General Social Security Treasury (TGSS).
In this project, we do not proceed to a specific collection as such, but rather, the information comes from the crossing of information available from surveys and administrative registers.
It is a statistical operation that carries out crossings of the Wage Structure Surveys with administrative registers, and therefore, there is no fieldwork.
The wage data is obtained from the Wage Structure Surveys, which uses a validation procedure that guarantees the completeness, correction and coherence of the information.
With regard to the validation of the crossings performed for including data on disabilities and measures to encourage employment, the following actions are carried out:
The process for the compilation of data is carried out in the following phases:
1. Obtaining the State Database of Persons with Disabilities (BEPD), filtered through its crossing and validation by the Municipal Register and deaths in the Vital Statistics.
2. Crossing the filtered BEPD with the sample of the Wage Structure Surveys, in order to obtain a subsample of persons with disabilities.
3. Completeness of the subsample of persons with disabilities, through its crossing with the files from the TGSS.
4. Obtaining the earnings variables through the Wage Structure Surveys.
5. Calculating the ratio estimators, the percentiles and the sampling errors for each of the variables considered, according to the methodology of the Wage Structure Survey.
6. Obtaining the final results tables.
Seasonal adjustments are not used, as this is a structural survey, for which insufficient historical data is available.
Calibration adjustments are not performed either, for the elevation factors, because the study object is not to obtain population totals, but rather, to obtain relative values (wages per worker or wages per hour), without providing estimators of the total companies or of the total workers.
For interested parties, other information referring to the group of persons with disabilities is available at: