The Spanish Regional Accounts (SRA) is a statistical operation whose main objective is to provide a quantified, systematic and as complete as possible description of the regional economic activity in Spain (Autonomous Communities, Autonomous Cities and Provinces) during the reference period under consideration.
From a conceptual point of view, it adopts the methodology established in the European System of National and Regional Accounts ESA-2010 (established by Regulation (EU) No. 549/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2013). The conceptual and quantitative reference framework in which it is integrated is the Spanish National Accounts (SNA).
The information it provides makes it possible to analyse and evaluate the structure and evolution of regional economies, and serves as a statistical basis for the design, implementation and monitoring of regional policies at both national and European level.
The main variables provided by the SRA are: regional aggregates of production activities by branches of activity (gross value added, compensation of employees, employment, gross fixed capital formation); regional Gross Domestic Product (RGDP) and regional household accounts. The gross value added by branch of activity and the GDPR are provided both in current terms and in terms of volume variation.
The classifications used are those that appear in the ESA manual:
In the case of the gross value added variables, as well as those of employment and compensation of employees, the branches of activity are grouped and coded with reference to CNAE 2009.
The breakdown of the gross value added at the level of Autonomous Communities and Autonomous Cities (NUTS II), published in the SRA, for all available years, is as follows:
Branch A. Agriculture, forestry and fishing
Branches B to E. Industry of which:
Branch C. Manufacturing industry
Branch F. Construction
Branches G to I. Trade, transport and accommodation and food service activities.
Branch J. Information and communications.
Branch K. Financial and insurance activities.
Branch L. Real estate activities.
Branches M a N. Professional activities.
Branches O to Q. Public administration, health and education.
Branches R to U. Arts, entertainment and recreation and other services.
At provincial level (NUTS III) the breakdown is as follows for all published years:
Branch A. Agriculture, forestry and fishing
Branches B to E. Industry of which:
Branch C. Manufacturing industry
Branch F. Construction
Branches G to J. Trade, transport, accommodation and food service activities, information and communications.
Branches K to N. Financial and insurance activities, real estate activities and professional activities.
Branches O to U. Public administration, health, education, arts, entertainment and recreation and other services.
The Spanish Regional Accounts cover all the economic activities that fall within the production frontier (in terms of the ESA 2010) developed by all the institutional units that make up the national economy.
It does not include domestic and personal services produced and consumed in the same household (except those produced by remunerated domestic staff and owner-occupied dwelling rental services), voluntary activities in which no goods are produced, nor purely natural processes that take place without human intervention or direction.
The units and sets of units used in Regional Accounting are defined based on the type of economic analysis to be performed. One of the basic units used in ESA 2010 is the institutional unit (IU) which is defined as an elementary centre of economic decision, characterised by a uniformity of behaviour and an autonomy of decision in the exercise of its main function and are grouped into institutional sectors (IS). These may be, for example, a household, a society or a unit of the General Government.
In practice, institutional units that produce goods and services normally carry out different activities at the same time. Therefore, for an effective analysis of the production process, these institutional units have to be divided into smaller and more homogeneous units from the point of view of the type of production, thus resulting in local units of economic activity (local UEA), which are grouped into branches of activity (BA) and units of homogeneous production (UHP), which are grouped into homogeneous branches (HB).
The Spanish Regional Accounts combine data from several different statistical sources. The concept of statistical population cannot be applied strictly speaking in the context of Regional Accounts.
The geographical scope is the entire Spanish economic territory. The SRA obtains disaggregated data both at the Autonomous Community level (including the Autonomous Cities of Ceuta and Melilla) and at the provincial level.
The INE has carried out the SRA since 1980. The time coverage depends on the reference base:
* The 2019 Statistical Review (RE-2019), currently in force, there is information from 2000 to 2019.
* In base 2010, information is available from 2000 to 2018.
* In base 2008, information is available from 2000 to 2013.
* In base 2000, information is available from 1995 to 2010.
* In base 1995, there is information from 1995 to 2004.
* In base 1986, there is information from 1980 to 1996.
The evolution of regional aggregates measured at current prices can be separated into two components, one reflecting the evolution of prices and the other reflecting movements in volume. The main purpose of estimates at constant prices is to provide indicators of economic activity in which the effect of price variation is eliminated.
When calculating estimates at constant prices, the main choice is the base year in which these estimates are to be expressed: Fixed base or mobile base.
Until the base change to base 2000, National and Regional Accounts have used a fixed base year for the calculation of their estimates at constant prices. This base year has been updated from time to time, having to express all available time series at current prices and at prices of the new base year.
However, changes in the base year exchange structure that occur over time as a result of changes in relative prices, technology, traded products, preferences, etc., imply the loss of significance and statistical relevance of fixed base assessments.
One solution to the problem of loss of relevance is to check the base as often as the estimate is made. In this way, estimates are obtained at prices of the previous year. These estimates constitute the so-called links. Thus, there would not be a single base year but this would change as the estimates advance over time. This approach provides relevant estimates at constant prices, however, direct comparison can only be made between two consecutive years. The formation of a homogeneous series representing the full sequence of years requires the chaining of all links (which are produced using the Laspeyres formula in the case of changes in volume). The reference year is the one that defines the scale of the chained index (becoming 100), while the time base is mobile, existing as many bases as pairs of consecutive years, reason why the chained calculation lacks a fixed base (mobile base).
The chained volume measures in the Annual National Accounts, are stipulated according to Decision of the European Commission No. 98/715 that establishes its obligatory nature in the transmission of data from the National Statistical Institutes to the statistical office of the EU, Eurostat. Although there is no equivalent legal framework for the SRA, for reasons of consistency this new methodology has also been adopted since its implementation in the annual accounts (since May 2005, when it began to be published with reference year 2000).
Currently, after the base change to the Statistical Review 2019, the reference year for the volume chained indices is the year 2015.
The units of measure in the Spanish Regional Accounts depend on the type of data to which they refer.
For economic data the unit of measure is thousands of euros.
For employment data the units of measure are thousands of people or thousands of hours, depending on the target variable of the estimation.
The accounting period is the calendar year.
Data referred to the period: Anual A: 2020
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2017-2020, approved by Royal Decree 410/2016, of 31 October, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2017-2020. (Statistics of the State Administration).
Regulation (EU) No. 549/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 May 2013 on the European System of National and Regional Accounts of the European Union contains the reference framework of common concepts, definitions, classifications and accounting rules for the compilation of National Accounts.
The Spanish version of the European Union regulations affecting this statistical operation is accessible from:
In this statistical operation there is no data exchange.
The Spanish Regional Accounts is a statistical operation included within the National Statistical Plan, subject therefore to the Law on the Public Statistical Function of 9 May 1989, and therefore, your data are protected by Statistical Confidentiality at all stages of its preparation.
Data are disseminated on an annual basis.
The users of the regional accounts can access the data of the 2019 Statistical Review (RE-2019) through the INE website. Specifically, there are the following links:
Functional approach. GDP and its components. Includes:
· Press release: contains a summary of the regional situation of the economy, paying special attention to the evolution of GDP and to disposable income per capita in the different Autonomous Communities.
· Main results: where GDP estimates are presented (at market prices and also per capita) and population figures at regional and provincial levels, as well as regional variations in volume.
· Detailed results: contains information on the economy as a whole at regional and provincial level, broken down into branches of economic activity.
Institutional approach: Household Income Account. Includes:
· Press release: contains a summary of the regional situation of the economy, paying special attention to the evolution of GDP and disposable income per capita in the different Autonomous Communities.
· Main results: where the estimation of the Gross Disposable Income of Households is presented (absolute and per capita data) at regional and provincial levels.
· Detailed results: contains information from the Allocation of Primary Income Account and the Secondary Distribution of Income Account at the regional and provincial levels, as well as the Redistribution of Income in Kind Account at the Autonomous Community level.
On the INE website, information can also be obtained on other bases of the SRA (base 2010, 2008, 2000, 1995 and 1986).
The series published by the SRA can be accessed through the EUROSTAT database.
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.
Information about the SRA can be obtained at the following link:
Due to the nature of the Regional Accounts, microdata are not available.
The Manual on regional accounts methods is available at the following link:
This standardised methodological report contains, from field 10.6 to 17.2, the elements of what it considers to be the "user-oriented quality report" for this operation.
Quality assurance framework for the INE statistics is based on the ESSCoP, the European Statistics Code of Practice made by EUROSTAT. The ESSCoP is made up of 16 principles, gathered in three areas: Institutional Environment, Processes and Products. Each principle is associated with some indicators which make possible to measure it. In order to evaluate quality, EUROSTAT provides different tools: the indicators mentioned above, Self-assessment based on the DESAP model, peer review, user satisfaction surveys and other proceedings for evaluation.
The main objective of the regional accounts is to provide a quantified, systematic and as complete a description as possible of the regional economic activity in Spain (both at Autonomous Community and provincial level), during the reference period under consideration. In this sense, there are numerous macroeconomic relations between all the aggregates that make up the SRA, which are studied and contrasted with each publication through analysis and numerous controls.
In addition, as part of the Spanish System of National Accounts, the SRA complies with the principles of coherence and consistency with the other integral parts of it, which gives it an additional level of strength. This consistency is achieved in a double sense:
Methodological consistency: given that the principles, definitions, classifications and structure of the regional accounts are the same as those adopted by the rest of the system.
Numerical consistency: given that the sum of the regional values of any aggregate of the SRA is equal to the corresponding aggregate provided by the annual or quarterly national accounts.
In the last preparation phase of the SRA, a global assessment of all the information is performed, carrying out numerous controls of consistency and viability among which it is worth mentioning:
Finally, Eurostat has a complete system of validation of all the data that are sent annually with regulatory character, and that constitute the SRA.
In order to ensure the strict application of the ESA-2010 concepts, National and Regional Accounts are monitored periodically by Eurostat.
The SRA is a structural synthesis statistic, available with a reduced time lag as the first estimate of year t is published only three months after the end of that year. Its main objective is to provide a quantitative, global and coherent description of each of the economic territories that make up the Spanish economy. Therefore, the SRA facilitates the analysis and monitoring of each of these territories being a very useful instrument for decision making in terms of regional economic policy as well as for the supervision of measures adopted by economic agents.
The regional accounts arise from the need to have disaggregated information of the national aggregates at Autonomous Community and province level.
The information it provides allows the analysis and evaluation of the structure and evolution of regional economies, and serves as a statistical basis for the design, implementation and monitoring of regional policies at both national and European levels.
In addition, being a synthesis statistic, the SRA allows to identify gaps and improvements in the Spanish statistical system.
Among the main users of this statistic are:
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016 and 2019 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...
On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)
100% of the results requested in the European Statistical System (ESS) regulation are provided. R1=100%
The Regional National Accounts is a synthesis statistic and not a survey, therefore the concepts related to sampling are not applicable.
Since the SRA is a synthesis operation, the sampling errors that affect it come from the sources from which the information is collected, which are analysed to see if they remain within reasonable limits.
Non-sampling errors can come both from sources and from the processing of the information in this operation (lack of coverage, process errors, measurement errors). Therefore, the direct measurement of accuracy in this case is not considered possible. The main instrument for analysing accuracy is the analysis of revisions (see point 17.2).
A SRA preview estimate is published within 210 days after the end of the reference period.
The complete SRA estimates are published, at the latest, on the last day of the year following the reference period, in compliance with the Regulation that governs the transmission of data relating to the National Accounts of the Statistical Institutes of the EU Member States to Eurostat (REGULATION (EU) No. 549/2013).
TP1=210 days; TP2=12 months
The results of the Spanish Regional Accounts are published on time according to the INE structural statistics publication calendar.
The ESA 2010 methodology used by all EU Member States allows comparability of regional accounts estimates between all regions belonging to them.
They are also compatible on a larger geographical scale as the ESA concepts are fully consistent with those contained in the existing global guidelines on national and regional accounts, which are contained in the System of National Accounts (developed under the joint responsibility of the United Nations, the International Monetary Fund, Eurostat, OECD and the World Bank).
The 2019 Statistical Review (RE-2019) is a benchmark review, an extraordinary regular review of national and regional accounts, which fulfils the need to periodically update the sources and estimation methods used for compilation (at least every five years, according to international recommendations at the European level).
In RE- 2019 regional data have been available since 2000.
In base 2010 there are homogeneous series from 2000 to 2018.
In base 2008 there are homogeneous series from 2000 to 2013.
In base 2000 there are homogeneous series available from 1995 to 2010.
CC2= 20 years
The Spanish Regional Accounts are consistent with the Accounts of the Territorial Public Administrations prepared by the General Intervention of the State Administration (IGAE) and implicitly, through the necessary adjustment to the Spanish National Accounts, with the Accounts of the General Government prepared by the General Intervention of the State Administration (IGAE), with the Foreign Trade statistics of the Customs Department and with the Balance of Payments.
Regional estimates for all aggregates are consistent with annual figures, within the framework of ESA 2010 price and volume measurements.
The first SRA estimate is consistent with data from the Spanish Quarterly National Accounts.
The estimated budget appropriation necessary to finance this statistic foreseen in the 2020 Annual Programme is 293.52 thousand euros.
The burden on respondents is nil, as the Spanish Regional Accounts are prepared using information provided by other statistics.
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).
This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow: routine revision- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-; more extensive revision- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and exceptional revision- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.
The Spanish Regional Accounts data are revised in a manner consistent with the data revision scheme of the Annual National Accounts. When Annual National Accounts data are revised in September each year, the Spanish Regional Accounts publishes regional series consistent with the new annual data series.
On the other hand, a flash estimate (first estimate) of the RGDP is published within 210 days following the end of the reference period, which is revised at the end of the year when new information becomes available.
There are several factors that determine revisions in the SRA estimates:
* Changes in Annual National Accounts data.
* Incorporation of new regional statistical sources.
* Updating of information from regional statistical sources.
The first time regional data are published, they are provisional. The final regional data are published three years after the end of the reference year (when the annual estimates are final).
The MAR and RMAR indicators for the year on year growth rate in volume of regional GDP in the year 2019, take the following values:
MAR is the average absolute size of revisions at NUTSII level, where the revision is defined as the difference between two estimates.
RMAR is the percentage that this average size of revisions assumes in relation to the values of the revised estimates.
The SRA integrates and reconciles a large number of cyclical and structural sources of economic information. Explicitly, we can mention two types of quantitative statistical information:
* Direct information: informs about the level of an accounting aggregate.
* Indirect information: informs about the change of an aggregate or part of it between two periods.
The availability of the different types of information conditions both the amount of information that the regional accounts are capable of providing (range and breakdowns) and the way in which these initial sources are to be used, being necessary to complement these basic statistical data with statistical procedures in the case of indirect information.
Among the indirect indicators used, the following should be highlighted:
* Production statistics. Some examples could be: industrial production indices, Services Sector Activity Indicators, Retail Trade Indices, Passenger Transport, Hotel Tourism Short-Term Trends, Tourist Accommodation Occupancy Surveys, Construction Activity Indicators, Agricultural and Livestock Holdings, etc.
* Employment and cost statistics, such as the Economically Active Population Survey, the Labour Cost Survey or the Social Security Affiliation Statistics.
* Price statistics, such as Consumer Price Indices, Industrial Price Indices, Housing Price Indices, Agricultural Price Indices, etc.
* Administrative registers and other quantitative sources, such as data on Social Security Affiliates.
Data collection techniques may vary depending on the type of source, date of data availability, etc.
In general, the data are sent to the regional accounts unit by the different units that prepare them, although sometimes, if the level of disaggregation is adequate and the date of publication fits the work scheme of the SRA, the information can be obtained directly from the corresponding database.
Once the basic indicators are selected, they are subjected to a series of treatments: identification of outliers, cleaning of errors, estimation of missing data, adaptation to the terms of National Accounts, among others.
The process of elaboration of the SRA can be structured in several phases:
1. Obtaining the baseline information and adapting it to the concepts of National Accounts.
2. Processing of information.
Once we have the baseline information, it undergoes a series of treatments such as identifying outliers, cleaning errors, estimating missing data and adapting it to the terms of National Accounts.
3. Implementation of the regionalisation methods foreseen in the ESA 2010 as well as in the manual of regional accounts methods elaborated by Eurostat.
According to the information obtained in each case, ascending, descending or mixed methods will be applied.
4. Adjustment to the Spanish National Accounts data.
The Spanish Regional Accounts publishes the series of regional macroeconomic aggregates. In both cases, there is temporal consistency with annual or quarterly aggregates.
5. Analysis of results
Finally, an overall assessment of all the information is made, carrying out numerous controls of consistency and viability.
Not applicable in the case of an annual operation.