Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

Indicator 9.5.1. Research and development expenditure as a proportion of GDP

Sub-indicator 9.5.1.1. Research and development expenditure as a proportion of GDP

  1. A partir de la fecha de referencia 2021 se ha realizado un cambio metodológico que afecta a la unidad estadística, pasando de ser la unidad legal a la empresa, tal y como se define en el Reglamento de la Unión Europea 696/1993. Para más información puede consultar la metodología en el enlace: https://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/es/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736176754&menu=metodologia&idp=1254735576669
  2. GDPmp on 2010 basis, which is provisional for 2016, has been used in the denominator. Its source is the Annual National Accounts.
    The population scope of the Statistics on R&D Activities covers businesses, public bodies, universities and higher education institutions and private nonprofit institutions that carry out R&D activities.
Source: INE