Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

Indicator 9.5.1. Research and development expenditure as a proportion of GDP

Sub-indicator Research and development expenditure as a proportion of GDP

  1. From the reference date 2021, a methodological change has been made that affects the statistical unit, changing the legal unit to a business statistical unit, as defined in the EU Regulation 696/1993. For more information, you can check the methodology in this link: www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/es/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736176754&menu=metodologia&idp=1254735576669. However, to avoid the series rupture of this ODS indicator, the data published here corresponds to the legal unit
  2. GDPmp on 2010 basis, which is provisional for 2016, has been used in the denominator. Its source is the Annual National Accounts.
    The population scope of the Statistics on R&D Activities covers businesses, public bodies, universities and higher education institutions and private nonprofit institutions that carry out R&D activities.
Source: INE