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The objective is to measure society demographics. These statistics offer monthly information on the companies created, the companies dissolved and those in which capital modifications have occurred. Data is obtained by province, Autonomous Community and the national total, using the data supplied by the Central Mercantile Register, which collects information from the entire national territory (country), including Ceuta and Melilla.
The target population of study is the group of Provincial Land Registries.
The statistical unit is the number, and the capital subscribed and paid of the companies created, the number of companies that have modified their capital and the number of companies dissolved, recorded in the mercantile registers during the reference month.
The target population of study is the group of Land Registries.
The geographical scope of these statistics encompasses the entire national territory.
These statistics have a monthly frequency.
Due to the mercantile reform in 1989, the statistics have experienced methodological and structural changes. However, measures have been taken to maintain the main historical series and to improve their publication, with new information: special companies and company offices.
Starting with the INE figures from January 1994, the publication of the paid capital began, in addition to the subscribed capital already collected for the mercantile companies constituted and for those increasing their capital; the payments of capital calls are also tabulated.
The reference period is the calendar month.
Data referred to the period: Mensual A: 2023 MES: 01
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2021-2024, approved by Royal Decree 1110/2020, of 15 December, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2021-2024. (Statistics of the State Administration).
The Mercantile Company Statistics (MC) was created by the Order dated 30 September 1938. The Law on the Reform and Adaptation of Mercantile Legislation for community directives, the Legislative Royal Decree of 22 December 1989, regarding the recast text of the Law on Public Limited Companies, and the subsequent Mercantile Register Regulation, affected the operative and conceptual part of these statistics as of January 1990.
The data from the statistics is sent, corresponding to the Autonomous Community requesting it.
The Statistical Law No. 12/1989 specifies that the INE cannot publish, or make otherwise available, individual data or statistics that would enable the identification of data for any individual person or entity. Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society
For the customised requests, the data is anonymised, that is, it is supplied without providing the identifying variables of the registerable record.
The advance release calendar that shows the precise release dates for the coming year is disseminated in the last quarter of each year.
The calendar is disseminated on the INEs Internet website (Publications Calendar)
The data are released simultaneously according to the advance release calendar to all interested parties by issuing the press release. At the same time, the data are posted on the INE's Internet website (www.ine.es/en) almost immediately after the press release is issued. Also some predefined tailor-made requests are sent to registered users. Some users could receive partial information under embargo as it is publicly described in the European Statistics Code of Practice
The statistics are disseminated monthly. The final data for the reference month the previous year is also published monthly.
The results of the statistical operations are normally disseminated by using press releases that can be accessed via both the corresponding menu and the Press Releases Section in the web
The results of the statistics are disseminated via the INE website:
www.ine.es en https://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/en/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736177026&menu=ultiDatos&idp=1254735576606, and some results are included in publications such as the Statistical Yearbook, INE Figures, etc.
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.
Access to tables and time series in Internet a tables and time series in www.ine.es/en/, in INEbase, within the "Financial and monetary statistics" section https://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/en/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736177026&menu=ultiDatos&idp=1254735576606
Users may not access the microdata.
There is the option of requesting customised information from the INE Customer Service Area. Limitations to confidentiality or precision are borne in mind at the time of processing said requests. See: https://www.ine.es/ss/Satellite?L=en_GB&c=Page&cid=1254735638180&p=1254735638180&pagename=ProductosYServicios%2FPYSLayout
A detailed description may be viewed at: https://www.ine.es/en/daco/daco43/metodologia_sm_en.pdf
Fields 10.6 to 17 constitute the user-oriented quality report of this operation.
Quality assurance framework for the INE statistics is based on the ESSCoP, the European Statistics Code of Practice made by EUROSTAT. The ESSCoP is made up of 16 principles, gathered in three areas: Institutional Environment, Processes and Products. Each principle is associated with some indicators which make possible to measure it. In order to evaluate quality, EUROSTAT provides different tools: the indicators mentioned above, Self-assessment based on the DESAP model, peer review, user satisfaction surveys and other proceedings for evaluation.
Each month, the data for compiling the Mercantile Company Statistics, submitted to the INE by the Central Mercantile Register, is subjected to a series of filtering phases:
- Lists are made of those companies with high or very low capital, in order to confirm, with the provincial mercantile registers, whether that information is correct.
- All of the companies appearing encoded with a social form of "Other" are checked, in order to seek their correct social form (P.L.C., L.T.D., or as pertinent).
The Mercantile Company Statistics is a high-quality statistical operation that meets all criteria of coherence, comparability, precision and timeliness.
It highlights the low rate of non-response and the use of administrative records, which reduces the cost and the burden on informants.
Statistics users include:
- Ministries and other public bodies, answers to parliamentary requests.
- Territorial administrations (Autonomous Communities, municipal councils, etc.), for dissemination of their territorial data.
- Companies and non-profit institutions.
Each one of these users have different needs according to the purpose and use they will make of the information they require.
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016 and 2019 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...
On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)
The specific needs of users, which are not covered with the information provided by these statistics, are taken into account whenever customised requests are carried out, and to the extent possible, are incorporated in the statistics when the methodology is updated.
Though there is no regulation establishing the information to be provided, the Mercantile Company Statistics meet most user needs; regarding unmet needs, these are resolved via customised requests.
Regarding what is established in the National Statistical Plan, statistics provide 100% of the information requested.
The procedure for collection, coverage control, error filtering and validation of the information allow obtaining a high degree of reliability in the statistics.
There is no sampling in the statistics.
The possible extraneous errors to the sampling that can occur, are due to erroneous annotations realized by the mercantile registers, which are compared with the BORME and they are corrected in the purification process.
No imputation is made, possible errors in the information received are corrected, due to errors in the entries made by the provincial trade registers; therefore the calculation of indicators A4, A5 and A7 is not appropriate.
The data from the statistics is published some 45 days following the reference month of the information.
The dissemination of the data is carried out in accordance with the structural statistics availability calendar that the INE compiles and publishes for each year.
These statistics, in all of their phases, are processed in the same way for the entire territory. In this way, the results are perfectly comparable for any geographical breakdown.
The data from the statistics from 1995 to 2021 is available in www.ine.es/en/, and it is final. The months from 2022 published to date are all provisional.
The Mercantile Company Statistics follow the same trend as the Company Statistics compiled by the Central Mercantile Register.
The coherence is the result of a fundamental matter, both in the planning of the statistics, and in all of its preparation process. The results have complete internal coherence, as they are based on the same set of data, and are calculated using the same estimation methods.
The estimation of the budgetary credit necessary to finance the Mercantile Companies Statistics in the Annual Program 2023 comes to a total of 31.75 thousand euros.
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).
This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow: routine revision- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-; more extensive revision- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and exceptional revision- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.
For some statistics, in which users particularly value having data as soon as possible, the initial estimates are published with the expectation that they might be revised and updated when new data is available. This is characteristic of short-term statistics, such as the monthly or quarterly statistics.
The provisional data for the statistics is disseminated monthly. 15 days prior to the publication for the reference month, the final item of data, revised, from that month the previous year is published.
All of the information regarding the registerable acts of the companies is obtained from the territorial mercantile registers, which each month send the Central Mercantile Register all the company movements. The Central Mercantile Register is the body that sends the INE the information necessary for compiling the statistics, and it does so via computer media.
The data is received monthly.
The Central Mercantile Register sends the data in an encrypted file via e-mail, to the Subdirectorate General for Information and Communication Technologies.
The data file submitted by the Central Mercantile Register is subjected to a validation phase (verification) for those companies constituted, or with modifications in capital, whose capital is anomalous. Confirmation of this information is requested of the provincial mercantile registers. A file is also created with those companies that have not been encoded according to their legal form, in order to assign them a code.
Once the validation processes are complete, tabulation begins for the publication of the press release.
No adjustments are made.