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The Labour Price Index is an annual statistical operation whose objective is to measure the change in the labour price over time as a consequence of labour market pressures alone, that is, without this measure being affected by changes in the quality and quantity of work carried out or, the same thing, by discounting the compositional effect.
To obtain the Labour Price Index, the annually chain-linked Laspeyres index is used.
The population scope is made up of employees from all local units, regardless of their size, and whose economic activity is included in Sections B to S of CNAE-09. Agricultural, livestock and fishing activities, domestic workers and extraterritorial organisations are excluded.
Two types of units are used as observation units:
1. The Contribution Accounts collected in the General Register of Social Security Contribution Accounts.
The Social Security Contribution Account is a concept traditionally used in salary and labour cost surveys, both by the INE and other bodies competent in this area.
The Social Security Contribution Account is made up of a group of employees who carry out their work in one or several work centres for the same company, within the same province and generally under the same main activity, but not necessarily, and with homogeneous characteristics with regard to Social Security contributions.
2. Employees associated with the Accounts
As an analytical unit the labour price index measures the evolution in the labour price of the employees included in the study.
The contribution accounts being studied are those whose economic activity belongs to Sections B to S of the CNAE-09 and which are in the General Register of Social Security Contribution Accounts as of 30 September of the reference year.
The workers included are those who work as employees in the contribution accounts being studied in the survey and who have been registered with Social Security for more than 2 months during the year, one of them being the month of October. The inclusion of this month is due to the fact that it has the advantage of being considered "normal" in all EU countries, in the sense that it is scarcely affected by seasonal variations or by payments due for more than one month, such as Christmas payments.
Presidents, board members and, in general, all personnel whose remuneration is not mainly in the form of a salary, but in the form of commissions or benefits, are excluded.
The geographical scope covers the entire national territory yielding results by Autonomous Community
The statistical operation is produced annually.
The base year is 2016
Variation rates: in percent
The reference period is the calendar year.
Data referred to the period: Anual A: 2020
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2021-2024, approved by Royal Decree 1110/2020, of 15 December, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2021-2024. (Statistics of the State Administration).
The Statistical Law No. 12/1989 specifies that the INE cannot publish, or make otherwise available, individual data or statistics that would enable the identification of data for any individual person or entity. Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society
The Labour Price Index is a statistical operation included in the National Statistics Plan, therefore subject to the Law on the Public Statistics Function of 9 May 1989 and, consequently, data is protected by statistical confidentiality at all stages of its processing.
The advance release calendar that shows the precise release dates for the coming year is disseminated in the last quarter of each year.
The calendar is disseminated on the INEs Internet website (Publications Calendar)
The data are released simultaneously according to the advance release calendar to all interested parties by issuing the press release. At the same time, the data are posted on the INE's Internet website (www.ine.es/en) almost immediately after the press release is issued. Also some predefined tailor-made requests are sent to registered users. Some users could receive partial information under embargo as it is publicly described in the European Statistics Code of Practice
The frequency of data publication is annual.
The results of the statistical operations are normally disseminated by using press releases that can be accessed via both the corresponding menu and the Press Releases Section in the web
Users can access the data through the INE website. Specifically, the following links appear:
- Press release: contains a summary of the results obtained in the reference year.
- Detailed results: where the different series produced are presented.
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.
INEbase / Labour market /Wages and labour costs / Labour price index or by accessing it directly via the following link:
There is no microdata for this statistical operation.
It is possible to request tailored information from the INE Information area. Limitations on confidentiality or accuracy are taken into account when processing such requests.
The link to the INE Information area is:
For a detailed description of the methods and concepts used, see the following link:https://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/en/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736177027&menu=metodologia&idp=1254735976596
Sections 10.6 to 17 of this document are the user-oriented quality report for this operation.
Quality assurance framework for the INE statistics is based on the ESSCoP, the European Statistics Code of Practice made by EUROSTAT. The ESSCoP is made up of 16 principles, gathered in three areas: Institutional Environment, Processes and Products. Each principle is associated with some indicators which make possible to measure it. In order to evaluate quality, EUROSTAT provides different tools: the indicators mentioned above, Self-assessment based on the DESAP model, peer review, user satisfaction surveys and other proceedings for evaluation.
The process for the preparation of the statistic has established checks to detect and correct errors in order to guarantee its quality.
The index is calculated once the sources of information used for its production have finished the collection, validation and imputing processes. Once produced, the internal consistency and the temporal evolution of the results are checked.
The main source of this statistical operation is the Annual Wage Structure Survey (AWSS) and the Quadrennial Wage Structure Survey (QWSS). These statistics are high quality products. Its sample size provides indicators up to the regional level.
The use of administrative sources to obtain the data reduces the cost of the survey without affecting the accuracy of the indices. In addition, to ensure such accuracy, the data is subjected to validation and consistency checks between the variables used, which makes the accuracy and reliability of the final data very high.
The users of the survey include:
- Eurostat and the European Commission.
- The European Central Bank
- Ministries and other public agencies.
- Territorial administrations (Autonomous Communities, City Councils....).
- Companies and non-profit institutions.
- Researchers and universities.
Each of these users has different needs according to the destination and utility of the information they need.
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016 and 2019 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...
On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)
Disaggregated indices are prepared for the different variables associated with the workplace (activity section, size of the establishment and Autonomous Community) and the worker (occupation, sex, type of contract, age, seniority and nationality).
strong>Data completeness rate: R1= 100%.
The accuracy of the statistics is determined by the accuracy of the information sources used in its production: the Annual Wage Structure Surveys (AWSS) and Quadrennial Wage Structure Surveys (QWSS).
In these surveys, the survey design attempts to minimise sampling errors and the different processes of the surveys are aimed at eliminating or reducing, as much as possible, errors in the same, both in the collection phase (response rate and filtering control) and in subsequent editing and imputing.
This does not apply as it is produced from the results of the Annual Wage Structure Survey (AWSS) and Quadrennial Wage Structure Survey (QWSS). The sampling errors of these surveys are available (https://www.ine.es/dynt3/inebase/es/index.htm?padre=4563&capsel=4566)
Non-sampling errors are checked throughout the entire statistical process.
As the statistic is prepared from the results of the Annual Wage Structure Surveys (AWSS) and Quadrennial Wage Structure Surveys (QWSS) that have already been subject to control, we refers to the information regarding this point in said surveys.
The LPI results are published within 18 months of the end of the reference period of the data.
Opportunity of final results TP2= 18 months
Data dissemination is carried out according to the structural statistics availability calendar that INE develops and publishes each year.
The LPI data are fully comparable between regions since the calculation method of this statistical operation, in all its phases, is the same across the entire national territory.
The LPI data are fully comparable over time since the start of the series (year 2008).
Length of comparable time series CC2=13
The use of the same national classification of economic activities allows the comparison of the information with other economic statistics concerning common variables.
Internal consistency is guaranteed as the information sources with which it is prepared also benefit from internal consistency, which allows the direct application of the index formula.
The estimate of the budgetary appropriation necessary to finance this statistic foreseen in the 2022 Annual Programme is 6.00 thousand euros.
The burden on respondents is null, since the statistic is prepared using existing information.
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).
This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow: routine revision- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-; more extensive revision- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and exceptional revision- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.
The LPI data are definitive from the first time it is published and therefore are not subject to revision.
The data are published when they are definitive, not subject to revision.
The main sources of information for the compilation of the LPI are results from the Annual Wage Structure Survey (AWSS) and the Quadrennial Wage Structure Survey (QWSS). To obtain the variable of the worker's age, information contained in the General Social Security Affiliation File is used.
From said data, the profit per hour worked is obtained, as well as the annual weightings necessary to calculate the Laspeyres index.
The collection of data from the Annual Wage Structure Survey (AWSS) and Quadrennial Wage Structure Survey (QWSS) results is carried out annually.
The information from the Annual Wage Structure Surveys (AWSS) and Quadrennial Wage Structure Surveys (QWSS) for use in the preparation of the LPI is obtained after completing the collection, validation and imputing processes of the questionnaires.
The administrative information from Social Security is sent digitally from the Social Security Fund.
Users are referred to the validation section of the Annual Wage Structure Survey (AWSS) and Quadrennial Wage Structure Survey (QWSS).
See the formulas used to obtain the Laspeyres index in the methodology document:
No adjustments have been made