Private Education Financing and Expenditure Statistic
- 1.1Contact organisation
National Statistics Institute of Spain
- 1.5Contact mail address
Avenida de Manoteras 50-52 - 28050 Madrid
- 1.1Contact organisation
- 2Metadata update
- 2.1Metadata last certified
- 2.2Metadata last posted
- 2.3Metadata last update
- 2.1Metadata last certified
- 3Statistical presentation
- 3.1Data description
The main objective of the Private Education Financing and Expenditure Statistics is to study the structural and economic characteristics of schools that carry out their activity in the regulated private education sector, both state-funded (a school unit financed using public money) and not state-funded.
To do this, information is collected on the characteristics of schools and for each education level: the composition of the student body and teaching staff, as well as the cost structure, expenditure and revenue.
In addition, it allows information to be obtained on household expenditure on private schools through income from students for teaching, extraordinary, supplementary activities and supplementary services.
The information obtained complies with a set of basic requirements, such as being comparable on an international scale, covering the information required by various users, both nationally (Ministry of Education,
Culture and Sports, School Councils, School Federations, Parent Associations...) as well as internationally through the UOE Questionnaire subject to Regulation (UNESCO, OECD and Eurostat), and being a useful instrument for National Accounts.
- 3.2Classification system
- Clasificaciones utilizadas
To determine the different educational levels, the recommendations outlined by ISCED 2011 (International Standard Classification of Education, revised in 2011) are followed.
Geographic classification: at the level of the list of Autonomous Communities and Cities according to the INE standard.
Classification by ownership of the school: the concept of ownership refers to the economic dependence of schools in their operations in relation to the extent of their agreement with the Administration. They are classified as:It must be noted that a school is considered to be state-funded when it has any state-funded classroom (financed with public funds). In the same way, schools that are not state-funded do not have any state-funded classrooms.
State-funded classrooms in state-funded schools.
Classrooms that are not state-funded in state-funded schools.
Classrooms that are not state-funded in schools that are not state-funded.
In addition, state-funded classrooms are those classrooms subsidised by the Public Administration for over 50% of their running costs. Of special relevance in 1st cycle of Early Childhood Ed. and Vocational Training
- Clasificaciones utilizadas
- 3.3Sector coverage
The target population of study are all private schools (with or without any state-funded classrooms) that provide both university-level and below university-level regulated education.
“Regulated” is understood to mean education that is authorised by Public Educational Administrations.
Private schools are considered to be those who have an owner that is a private corporation or natural person, with owner being understood as the entity registered as such in the Schools Registers of the different Education Statistics Institutes or Regional Ministries Economic of Economy or the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport, regardless of whether it is largely financed by public funds
Territorial coverage: includes all private schools located in the national territory including the Autonomous Cities of Ceuta and Melilla.
- 3.4Statistical concepts and definitions
- Allocations for depreciation of tangible fixed ass
It is the accounting expression of the actual annual systematic depreciation suffered by tangible fixed assets as a result of their application to the production process.
- Capital expenses
Transfers performed during the reference period for obtaining elements intended to be used in the company activity in the long-term, as well as the external financing of the company.
- Capital income
Considered herein are the revenues received during the reference period from the sale of elements intended to be used in the company activity on a long-term basis, as well as public and private transfers used to finance investments, and yields from capital belonging to the centre.
- Capital transfers
Those used to finance investments. According to their origin, distinction is made between public transfers (from the Central Government, Autonomous Communities, local administration, or other public bodies) and private transfers (from individuals, non-profit institutions, companies and overseas).
- Classification of personnel, according to category
Teachers that solely teach regulated education
- Teachers who teach regulated education classroom hours, though they participate in other tasks; management, extracurricular activities, etc.
- Complementary services personnel (canteen, transport, boarding services, etc.)
- Other centre personnel (directors that do not teach, administration staff and general services personnel, etc.)
Those Regulation Education teachers who teach at different educational levels or who carry out multiple tasks (management, etc.) are account for in each one of them.
- Classification of personnel, according to contract
Paid staff: personnel who receive some type of remuneration, in cash, for:
- "contracted" tasks, that is, which are paid by the Administration though the grants awarded to the centre, and/or
- "non-contracted" tasks, that is, which are paid directly by the centre.
Unpaid staff: (personnel that is not "contracted" that is not hired by the centre). We are dealing here with personnel that do not receive remuneration from the centre (not contracted) nor from the Administration (do not receive a subsidy). This is the case of certain self-employed workers who maintain some sort of ownership relationship with the centre, such as, owners and members of cooperatives (who are generally not hired), non-contracted religious personnel, volunteer staff, etc., who perform a specific management or teaching function, but without receiving payment in exchange for this work.
- Complementary boarding services of a school
Only boarding services that depend directly on the centre are considered to fall within this category. Consequently, it will only be considered as such in those cases in which it is free or where students pay the centre for said service through monthly fees.
- Complementary dining room service of a school
This refers to the provision of food that is offered by the centre, including both that directed at students/external users (non-residents), internal users (residents), and that intended for sporadic users (canteen passes). It may be free-of-charge or paid by means of monthly fees.
- Complementary school activities
Complementary activities are those carried out during the school hours in which it is mandatory for students to be at the centre, and they complement school activities; the participation of students in these activities is voluntary. Examples of these types of training activities, although not strictly educational, are excursions, sports competitions, visits to museums or companies, conferences, etc.
- Complementary service expenditure on boarding service
It is the total cost on boarding service that is offered by the centre. If the boarding service is provided by the centre, it includes expenditure on repairs and maintenance of the furniture of the halls of residence. If the boarding service is contracted by a third party, it refers to the total amounts paid out for the contracted work.
- Complementary service expenditure on canteen service
It is the total cost of the service of the provision of food that is offered by the centre. If the canteen service is provided by the centre, it includes expenditure on food, replacement of furnishings, maintenance of canteen furniture, etc. If the canteen service is provided by a third party, it refers to the total amounts paid out for the contracted work.
- Complementary services expenses on scheduled schoo
It is the total cost of the transport service provided by the centre. If the transport service is provided by the centre, this includes expenditure on fuel and supplies, repairs and maintenance of transport elements, etc. If the transport service is provided by a third party, it refers to the total amounts paid out for the contracted work.
- Complementary services (nursery, cafeteria, cinema, bookshop, ...) provided by the centre
This includes those other services provided by the centre (crèche services for the care of students before or after school hours, cafeteria, cinema, bookshop, etc.). This excludes dining, residence and transport services.
They do not fall within this category when they are provided for by another company and the centre receives, in return, revenue under the concept of lease or licence.
- Complementary services of a school
The following are defined as such: transport services, dining services, boarding services and other complementary services (crèche services before or after school hours, medical services, psychology services, etc.) that might be provided to centre students. These services may be provided directly by the centre itself, or contracted out to a company. Not falling within this category are those services in which the centre does not directly or indirectly intervene in the administration of the service (for example, the service offered by the Parents Association, or directly by the company to students), without any intervention on the part of the centre, that is, by charging students fees and/or payment for the service directly to the company.
- Complementary transport service of a school
School transport refers to the service that takes students from their homes to the centre and vice versa. This service may be free-of-charge or paid by means of monthly fees.
- Concerted Centre
The educational concert is given to the school unit (classroom) and not to the centre itself, so that in the same centre several school units can coexist with other non-concerted units.
For tabulation purposes, if the Centre has any concerted (or classroom) unit (or subsidized in more than 50% of its current expenditure), the Centre is considered to have been concluded. In such a way, that concerted and non-concerted classrooms can coexist within the same centre
- Concerted classroom
The classroom is considered to be financed by a concert or subsidy from the public administration (usually the autonomous one) with the objective of financing the personnel and/or operation expenses of the Centre during the period that is considered.
Also, classrooms supported by the public administration are considered as classrooms in more than 50% of their current expenditures. Of special incidence in Ed. Infantile 1st cycle and in the professional teachings
- Current costs of a school
These are the expenses actually incurred and paid by the centre, and those other items which, though they have not been paid directly, do represent an imputed cost for the teaching centre, such as the estimated wages of the unpaid personnel.
- Current expenditure on goods and services of a school
This refers to the values of all those purchases and expenses for the functioning of the centre during the reference period, assessed without including VAT (charged and deductible).
- Current expenses
This is expenditure that is necessary for the functioning of the centre, incurred during the period to which the data refers (2009-2010 academic year, or the year 2010), irrespective of whether or not it has been consumed or paid (accrual basis).
This comprises three large groups: personnel expenses, current expenses on goods and services, and taxes.
- Current income from students
Contributions from the households (students) in consideration for the services received at the centre.
- Current income of a school
Considered herein as current income for the period are the corresponding fees charged to students, non-capital transfers received and other revenues received in consideration for the remaining services offered by the centre.
- Educational activity
Activities related directly to the training of the students are considered as an educational activity. It includes teaching activities, complementary activities and extracurricular activities
- Educational subsidies
These are the subsidies granted by the Public Administrations, with the objective of financing the personnel expenses and/or the expenses for centre operation during the period considered.
The objective of Educational Subsidies (Royal Decree 2377/1985) is to guarantee the effectiveness of the right to free education, at those levels and within the scopes provided for by law. Distinction is made between two types of subsidy: general subsidy and singular subsidy.
- Educational units in operation
An educational unit in operation is considered to be that student group that has the same teacher, and that undertakes most of its class hours together, though for another part of the schoolday, it may separate in order to undertake optional classes (languages, religion, etc.) or for other reasons.
- Enrolled student
Students are defined as those persons enrolled in the centre in order to receive education at any level.
- Expenditure on complementary services of a school
It is the total cost on complementary services provided by the centre. If these services are provided by the centre, it excludes payments to personnel (that are not considered expenditure on goods and services, but rather personnel remuneration).
In the event that these services are contracted out to third parties, it refers to the total amounts of contracted work.
- Expenditure on educational activities
This is the expenditure that is solely related to teaching activities (regulated education), extracurricular activities (private classes, languages, ballet, etc.) and complementary activities (field trips, museum visits, etc.).
- Expenses on banking services
This comprises those expenses that are necessary for the functioning of the educational centre relating to banking services. This excludes interest payments and loan repayments.
- Expenses on cafeteria, cinema and the like in a school
It includes all expenditure not related to educational activities or complementary services. Thus, this includes expenditure on services such as cafeterias, cinema, etc.
They do not fall within this category when the service is provided by another company and the centre receives, in return, revenue under the concept of a lease or licence.
- Expenses on other complementary services (nursery, nurse's office, ...) of a school
It includes expenditure on crèche services for before or after school hours, first aid services, medical services, etc., and the payment of professionals (qualified non-teaching personnel) not included within the centre payroll, and which corresponds to non-sector independent professional services.
- Expenses relating to complementary activities of a school
This comprises only those expenses relating to complementary activities (excursions, visits to museums,...). Examples of this type of expenditure are those payments for excursions (expenses on food, museum tickets, etc.), for conferences (payment to participants, rental of audiovisual media, etc.), for sporting competitions (payment of material, rental of installations, etc.). It includes expenditure on one-time transport to carry out these types of activities.
- Expenses relating to teaching and extracurricular
This comprises only those expenses relating to teaching activities (official education programmes) and extracurricular activities (individual classes, languages, ballet...). It includes the consumption of consumable material (learning material, laboratory material, workshop or assessment material, etc.) and other teaching and extracurricular activity expenses such as repairs, preservation and rental of school furniture and teaching equipment. It also includes the remuneration for freelance teaching personnel and persons contracted for specific projects.
- Extracurricular activities
Extracurricular activities are considered to be those established by the centre, and which are carried out outside of the school day, voluntarily and solely targeting students from the centre itself.
These activities are focused on both expanding or reinforcing the knowledge taught during the classroom lectures (individual classes in mathematics, compulsory languages, etc.) and other types of activities aimed at encouraging different aspects of educational training (other languages, music, ballet, etc.).
- Financial income
Considered herein are revenues from shareholdings, fixed income securities, loans, discounts on acquisitions due to prompt payment, and profits obtained from negotiable securities.
- General administration costs of a school
This comprises those expenses relating to administration that are necessary for the functioning of the educational centre. It includes expenditures on:
- Non-inventory office material (printed matter, paper, etc.)
- Telephone and postal services
- Other administration expenditure (repairs, maintenance and rental of office furniture and machines, allowances and transport, shipping charges, clothing, etc.).
- General educational contract
This includes, as a transfer from the Administrations, those
amounts corresponding to the payments of the wages of the teaching and management personnel
- General expenditure of a school
This comprises those expenses that are necessary for the functioning of the educational centre, such as those relating to real estate, administration or other general expenses.
- General expenses on external services
This comprises those expenses that are necessary for the functioning of the educational centre relating to advertising, propaganda, public relations, accounting or fiscal advisory services, legal expenses, subscriptions, research and development services entrusted to other companies.
- General real estate expenses of a school
This comprises those expenses relating to real estate that are necessary for the functioning of the educational centre. It includes expenditures on:
- Leasing of buildings
- Repairs and maintenance of buildings, facilities, etc.
- Non-corporate insurance premiums
- Supplies (water, fuel, electricity, etc.)
- Cleaning services provided by the centre. This also includes expenditure on cleaning materials and utensils.
- Cleaning services contracted with another company. This refers to the total amount paid out for the contracted work.
- Other expenditure on buildings
- Hours worked by the personnel
This includes the total number of weekly hours (class hours and complementary hours, according to the collective agreement, and overtime) usually worked by the total number of persons belonging to each category, which generally coincide with the persons hired by the centre.
- Intangible assets
Considered herein are long-term assets that are not considered tangible. These include research and development expenditure (carried out by the company itself or trusted to a third party), administrative concessions for obtaining research or exploitation rights, industrial property, goodwill, transfer rights over premises, and IT applications (irrespective of whether or not they are produced by the company itself). They also include those goods acquired pursuant to leasing contracts.
- Legal dependency of the centre
The centre depends on the owner thereof. Legal dependence is a criterion to be used to determine the type of centre, classifying it according to who is its registered owner, on record as such in the Registry of the MECS.
- Legal nature of the centre owner
This refers to the legal nature that appears in the Register of Centres of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport. : mercantile company, cooperative, individual or private non-profit institutions.
- Non-concerted classroom
It is considered the classroom (or unit) that is not financed by the public administration in more than 50% of its current expenses
- Other current income
This refers to all that income not considered under the above headings, due to non-educational services and activities, such as a bar, cinema, etc., carried out in the centre, whether or not they are managed by the centre (in the latter case, income may be received as leases or licences). These include activities managed by Parents Associations, the awarding of cafeteria or transport services, etc.
- Ownership of the centre/classroom
This is the economic dependence of the functioning school units in the centre, based on the degree of subsidy maintained with the Administration.
The Educational Subsidy is granted to the "school unit" (classroom) and not to the centre itself, in such a way that a single centre may have several "school units" subsidised, along with other units that are not subsidised.
- Personnel costs
Personnel costs means the total remuneration, in cash or in kind, to be paid by an employer to an employee (either fixed, temporary or homeworker) in exchange for a work done by this person during the reference period.
Staff costs also include taxes and social security contributions of employees retained by the unit, as well as the employer's compulsory and voluntary social contributions.
Staff costs are composed of:
-Salaries and salaries
-Employer costs of social security
Any remuneration paid during the reference period is included, regardless of whether it is paid on the basis of the working day, the production or the piecework, and whether it is paid periodically or not. Also included are all bonuses, productivity and performance premiums, unpaid payments, extraordinary (and similar) pay, redundancy allowances, accommodation and transportation, cost-of-living premiums and Family allowances, commissions, attendance bonuses, overtime, night work, etc., as well as taxes, social security contributions and other amounts payable by employees and retained at the source by Employers.
The employer's social security costs are also included. These include the employer's social security contributions aimed at covering retirement, sickness, maternity, disability, unemployment, occupational accidents and illnesses, family allowances and other contingencies. These costs are included regardless of whether they are statutory, the subject of a collective agreement, contractual or voluntary
- Personnel of the centre
Those persons who provide their services therein, whether through a labour relation (job contract), or because they have some sort of relationship with the centre, either as property (owners of school centres or members of cooperatives that perform management or teaching work) or as belonging or association with the owning entity (religious personnel, etc.), regardless of whether or not their activity is paid, and of who pays them (hired personnel or not).
- Revenues of a school from grants or current transfers
This refers to the amounts transferred to the centre, irrespective of whether or not they have been collected, earmarked for financing the functioning of the centre during the reference period.
- Sales of capital goods
The total amount obtained from the sale of inventory during the reference period, valued without including VAT.
- Similar figures that are not considered personnel of the center
It refers to those personnel who, although doing a work in the centre, do not take into account the staff of the Centre, although their remunerations have the character of current expenses in goods and services. Within this group are encompassed:
The hiring staff or the contract of work; That one of the parties is obliged to execute one work to the other for a certain price.
Service lease contracts; Self-employed and independent professionals without property relationship.
- Singular educational contract
With this type of contract, the transfer is partial, and does not cover the "Other expenses" item (administration, services, maintenance personnel, etc.), which may be paid directly by the family quotas. It is intended for non-compulsory educational levels, and in which the contract may, at times, be granted only to certain units at the same level (for example: to one specific line of VT)
- Size of the centre
Size of the centre is defined depending on the number of students who are enrolled in the centre.
- Specific adult education centre
This is the centre that is exclusively focused on the education of adults.
- Specific Special-education centre
This is the centre that is solely dedicated to students who require special education.
- Students who are users of complementary services for reasons linked to education
Student who uses a good or service for reasons linked to education, such as transport services, canteen services (regular internal, regular external and sporadic) and boarding services, both when these are provided by the centre as well as by other companies pursuant to a contract (and to which the centre pays a fee for the provision of said services).
- Tangible assets
Considered herein are new or used durable goods, acquired or sold to other companies or produced for own use, whose useful life is longer than one year, and which are intended for company use.
These are compulsory payments made to the Public Administrations, and the benefits provided to the taxable person are not directly linked to that payment.
- Teaching activities
A teaching activity is defined as that which refers to the disciplines contained in the official education programmes.
- Type of centre
Type of centre is defined depending on the levels of education offered by each centre.
- Unconcerted centre
For tabulation purposes, if the centre does not have a concerted (or classroom) unit (or subsidized in more than 50% of its current expenditures), the centre is deemed not to have been concluded. In such a way, there can only be non-concerted classrooms in these centres
- Allocations for depreciation of tangible fixed ass
- 3.5Statistical unit
The units of analysis comprise all private regulated teaching centres whose main activity is to provide one or more educational levels and that function as such during the reference period (academic year 2020-2021).
- 3.6Statistical population
This involves the set of regulated private teaching centres located in the national territory whose main activity is to provide one or more educational levels within the scope of this Survey and that function as such during the reference period (academic year 2020-2021).
- 3.7Reference area
This covers all regulated private teaching centres located in the national territory.
- 3.8Time coverage
This statistic is carried out every five years. Detailed results are available on the INE website for the academic years 1994-95, 1999-2000, 2004-2005, 2009-2010, 2014-2015 and 2020-21.
- 3.9Base period
The time series published on the INE website starts with the academic year 1994-1995.
- 3.1Data description
- 4Unit of measure
- 4.1Unit of measure
thousands of Euros for absolute values
Euros for average values per student or user
- 4.1Unit of measure
- 5Reference period
- 5.1Reference period
The reference period of the Survey is the academic year, and it aims to obtain all data from the 2014-2015 academic year.
In those cases in which schools' accounts have been adjusted to the calendar year, the economic data refer to 2015.
Data referred to the period: 2020-2021
- 5.1Reference period
- 6Institutional mandate
- 6.1Legal acts and other agreements
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2021-2024, approved by Royal Decree 1110/2020, of 15 December, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2021-2024. (Statistics of the State Administration).
This survey was carried out in collaboration with the Statistics Institute of Catalonia (IDESCAT) , the Instituto de Estadistica de Navarra (NASTAT) and the Basque Statistics Office (EUSTAT) for the scope of the schools in their respective Autonomous Communities
- 6.2Data sharing
The exchanges of information needed to elaborate statistics between the INE and the rest of the State statistical offices (Ministerial Departments, independent bodies and administrative bodies depending on the State General Administration), or between these offices and the Autonomic statistical offices, are regulated in the LFEP (Law of the Public Statistic Function). This law also regulates the mechanisms of statistical coordination, and concludes cooperation agreements between the different offices when necessary.
A collaboration agreement has been signed with the Statistics Institute of Catalonia (IDESCAT), the Statistics Institute of Navarra (NASTAT) and the Euskal Estatistika-Erakundea/Basque Statistics Institute (EUSTAT) for the educational centers of their respective autonomous communities.
In this collaboration agreement, the INE undertook to draft the methodological specifications included in the
Survey Project and in the corresponding technical documents, as well as to design the Questionnaire, to design the register of the final file and the error detection rules for the validation of the final file. Without prejudice to a fluid relationship between the different agencies necessary for the unification of criteria and the resolution of situations specific to each Autonomous Community.
The collaboration agreement involves the corresponding Statistical Institute in obtaining the directories, as well as in the editing, sending, recording and filtering/imputation of questionnaires.
- 6.1Legal acts and other agreements
- 7.1Confidentiality - policy
The Statistical Law No. 12/1989 specifies that the INE cannot publish, or make otherwise available, individual data or statistics that would enable the identification of data for any individual person or entity. Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society
- 7.2Confidentiality - data treatment
INE provides information on the protection of confidentiality at all stages of the statistical process: INE questionnaires for the operations in the national statistical plan include a legal clause protecting data under statistical confidentiality. Notices prior to data collection announcing a statistical operation notify respondents that data are subject to statistical confidentiality at all stages. For data processing, INE employees have available the INE data protection handbook, which specifies the steps that should be taken at each stage of processing to ensure reporting units' individual data are protected. The microdata files provided to users are anonymised.
- 7.1Confidentiality - policy
- 8Release policy
- 8.1Release calendar
The advance release calendar that shows the precise release dates for the coming year is disseminated in the last quarter of each year.
- 8.2Release calendar access
The calendar is disseminated on the INEs Internet website (Publications Calendar)
- 8.3User access
The data are released simultaneously according to the advance release calendar to all interested parties by issuing the press release. At the same time, the data are posted on the INE's Internet website (www.ine.es/en) almost immediately after the press release is issued. Also some predefined tailor-made requests are sent to registered users. Some users could receive partial information under embargo as it is publicly described in the European Statistics Code of Practice
- 8.1Release calendar
- 9Frequency of dissemination
- 9.1Frequency of dissemination
Definitive data are released every five years.
- 9.1Frequency of dissemination
- 10Accessibility and clarity
- 10.1News release
The results of the statistical operations are normally disseminated by using press releases that can be accessed via both the corresponding menu and the Press Releases Section in the web
A press release is disseminated when definitive data are published. This can be found at:
All relevant documents related to statistics (methodology, questionnaires...), as well as complete tabulation can be found at
- 10.3On-line database
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.
Access to tables in INEbase within the Society / Education and Culture section at www.ine.es
- 10.4Micro-data access
A lot of statistical operations disseminate public domain anonymized files, available free of charge for downloading in the INE website Microdata Section
Microdata files with standard anonymisation are not provided for this statistical operation. However, users can access these via tailored requests.
It is possible to request tailored information through the INE Information area. It must be noted that there are limitations on confidentiality or accuracy when processing the aforementioned requests (link: https://www.ine.es/prodyser/informacion ).
As it is five yearly, annual updates are carried out of the main figures in order to meet international information requests, in particular the UOE Questionnaire subject to Regulation, as well as national agencies (State School Councils, Madrid School Council...).
- 10.6Documentation on methodology
A detailed description is available through the following link (publications, press releases, methodology and questionnaires):
- 10.7Quality documentation
Sections 10.6 to 17 of this document are the user-oriented quality report for this operation.
- 10.1News release
- 11Quality management
- 11.1Quality assurance
Quality assurance framework for the INE statistics is based on the ESSCoP, the European Statistics Code of Practice made by EUROSTAT. The ESSCoP is made up of 16 principles, gathered in three areas: Institutional Environment, Processes and Products. Each principle is associated with some indicators which make possible to measure it. In order to evaluate quality, EUROSTAT provides different tools: the indicators mentioned above, Self-assessment based on the DESAP model, peer review, user satisfaction surveys and other proceedings for evaluation.
When the INE receives provisional files (fortnightly) with information completed in the questionnaires, it carries out quality controls on the internal coherence of the data referring to each school for them to be validated or returned if any data requires checking.
Later, a series of tables are designed with the aim of verifying the quality of aggregated data and of the relations between the different variables, as well as to analyse comparability with other statistical sources.
- 11.2Quality assessment
Filtering and digital tabulation allow for strict validation rules to be established throughout the statistical process.
Having a web questionnaire for this statistic allows for a reduction in the time for the completion and correction of certain errors through the included controls as well as producing a positive effect with regards to the respondent's perception of the ease of filling out the survey.
For this edition, sections of the questionnaire have been redesigned with the aim of making its completion easier.
- 11.1Quality assurance
- 12.1User needs
The users of this statistic include:
- International agencies. Base for the completion of the UOE Questionnaire (UNESCO, OECD, Eurostat) subject to Regulation in the FINANCE 2 sections referring to the expenditure of private schools.
- Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports and Autonomous Communities' Statistics Institutes
- Other public agencies (State School Councils, Madrid School Council...) for the preparation of their annual Reports on the status of the education system.
- Non-profit institutions and companies.
Researchers and universities.
- 12.2User satisfaction
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016 and 2019 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...
On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)
The Statistic is not subjected to the Regulation of the European Statistical System as such, although its data serve as a base for the completion of the sections on private expenditure (FINANCE2) of the UOE questionnaire (UNESCO, OECD and Eurostat) that are subject to the Regulation.
All the information required is collected in the National Statistics Plan in such a way that it allows for compliance with the aims of the survey and attendance to requests received.
The rate of available obligatory statistical results (Indicator R1) is R1=100%
- 12.1User needs
- 13Accuracy and reliability
- 13.1Overall accuracy
The collection procedure, coverage control and the different processes both for debugging errors and inconsistencies and for imputing non-response (partial or total) allow obtaining a high degree of reliability of the statistics.
In the case of non-university education, stratified random sampling is applied, where the strata are formed by crossing the following variables: autonomous community, type of center, size of center and economic agreement. Each stratum is treated as an independent population where a simple random sample is obtained. Centers with more than 1000 students become exhaustive. From the initial framework of 9,323 centers, 5,401 centers have been selected for the survey.
In the case of university education, the collection has been exhaustive (33 universities and 124 affiliated centers).
The selection of the sample in the communities of Catalonia, Navarra and the Basque Country, have been carried out respectively by the Statistics Institute of Catalonia (IDESCAT), the Statistics Institute of Navarra (NASTAT) and the Euskal Estatistika-Erakundea/Basque Institute of Statistics (EUSTAT) for the scope of the educational centers of their respective autonomous communities.
- 13.2Sampling error
To assess the quality of the results, the relative sampling errors, in percentage, of the main survey variables are calculated.
In the non-university case
The sampling errors in the variables:
The test errors in the variable Current income is A1=0.32
The test errors in the variable Current expenses is A1=0.28
- 13.3Non-sampling error
- Coverage controls are established through detailed analysis of the directory. -For the imputation of the lack of partial response: The information available in the directory has been used as a basis (geographic information, levels of education taught, number of students, number of teachers...) -For the imputation of total non-response: The post-stratification technique has been used, in order to correct possible biases in the survey results, derived from the non-response of a part of the considered educational centers. Said procedure consists of assigning some weights to the informant centers so that the distribution of said weights is equal to the distribution of the total centers of the framework. It is expected that within the same stratum the centers present a similar behavior with respect to the objective variables. NON-UNIVERSITY TEACHING. .Of the 9,323 centers that made up the final directory of the survey, a representative sample of 5,959 centers has been selected, from which 5,401 questionnaires have been collected, which means a non-response rate (indicator A4) of A4=9.3 %. The post-stratification variables used to obtain the weights of the reporting centers of non-university education have been: Autonomous community in which education is provided Existence or not of concert Type of teaching given center size UNIVERSITY TEACHING. The non-response rate (indicator A4) was A4=9.3% (97 centers out of a total of 107 centers were collected in the centers collected by the INE).
- 13.1Overall accuracy
- 14Timeliness and punctuality
The time period from the data reference date is the 2020-2021 school year until publication (TP2 indicator) is TP2=14 months. The collection of information was carried out at the end of 2021 and the beginning of 2022.
Data dissemination is carried out in accordance with the structural statistics availability calendar that INE publishes and prepares every year.
- 15Coherence and Comparability
- 15.1Comparability - geographical
The processing of the statistic, in all its stages, follows the same criteria for the whole national territory. In this way, results are completely comparable for any geographical disaggregation (even at a provincial level).
It is also comparable at the international level, as it collects all the necessary items for the completion of the International UOE Questionnaire (UNESCO, OECD, Eurostat) subject to Regulation.
- 15.2Comparability - over time
The results are comparable over time.
The number of comparable units over time (indicator CC) is CC2=5.
- 15.3Coherence - cross domain
It complements the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport's (MECD) framework by including information on private sector expenditure that is not present in its statistics. The MECD only collects information on public schools that provide regulated education through information from their administrative registers.
The classifications, concepts and definitions are comparable between both operations.
- 15.4Coherence - internal
Internal coherence between the variables is checked at every stage of the statistical process. Internal validation rules exist both in the completion of the questionnaire as well as in the processes following filtration.
- 15.1Comparability - geographical
- 16Cost and burden
- 16.1Cost and burden
The estimate of the budget credit necessary to finance this survey carried out by the INE is foreseen in the annual programs for 2021 and 2022: PA 2021= 220.74 euro miles and PA 2022= 13.87 euro miles In order to reduce the burden on the informant: - A smaller questionnaire has been designed, compared to previous editions. - The use of the electronic questionnaire makes it possible to reduce the informant's burden from the point of view of interview time. - Unlike previous editions, in this edition a document has been carried out in non-university centers, in those educational levels in which there was a sufficient population group, significantly reducing the burden on informants.
- 16.1Cost and burden
- 17Data revision
- 17.1Data revision - policy
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).
This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow: routine revision- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-; more extensive revision- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and exceptional revision- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.
There is no data review policy.
- 17.2Data revision - practice
Results previews are not published. Data that are published are definitive and, therefore, not subject to review.
- 17.1Data revision - policy
- 18Statistical processing
- 18.1Source data
The statistical data is obtained from the questionnaires completed via the web by the educational centers of regulated private education. Two types of questionnaires have been designed; one for non-university centers and another, more specific and reduced, for university ones. For non-university private centers, it was carried out by sampling, a representative sample of non-university private educational centers has been taken, since the survey is addressed to all private educational centers located in national territory. A sampling of 63.9% has been carried out in these centers. The directories include, in addition to data on the identification of the center, information on the characteristics of the center, levels taught, number of students by levels... with the additional objective of supporting debugging tasks and imputation of non-response. The directories of regulated private education centers, provided to the INE by the Ministry of Education and Vocational Training, are used as a statistical framework. This survey has been carried out in collaboration with the Statistics Institute of Catalonia (IDESCAT), the Statistics Institute of Navarra (NASTAT) and the Euskal Estatistika-Erakundea/Basque Statistics Institute (EUSTAT), which have updated the directories, the collection and purification of the educational centers of their respective autonomous communities.
- 18.2Frequency of data collection
This statistic is carried out every five years.
The data refers to the 2020/2021 academic year or calendar year 2020. The information was collected between the last quarter of 2021 and the first quarter of 2022
- 18.3Data collection
To obtain the information, each education centre is contacted through a letter of introduction in which a web link is provided to the application where the questionnaire can be completed, as well as the access codes to this application.
Information is collected through the web questionnaire (although the questionnaire is also available in paper format).
It includes a series of inconsistency controls that allow for interactive simultaneous recording and filtering of the questionnaire.
- 18.4Data validation
First stage: The web questionnaire includes a series of alerts and errors on valid and inconsistent values that allow errors to be corrected whilst the questionnaire is being completed.
Second stage: Analysis of provisional biweekly files during the information collection stage. A series of quality controls is then carried out, both of coverage of respondent units (duplicates, non-response...) and of internal coherence of microdata (based on a series of regulations established in the statistic's technical documents). This enables the questionnaire to be validated (in the first instance) or returned if data is considered to require checking. This process enables data to be corrected soon after being completed and helps prevent systematic errors.
Furthermore, a series of aggregated results tables is programmed that show the relationship between variables and possible imbalances not considered in the filtering of individual questionnaires. The internal coherence of the data is analysed through variation coefficients... by education level, Autonomous Communities and compared to external sources.
Third stage: Subsequently, once the statistic's joint file is obtained and the non-response has been imputed, joint treatment of the information is carried out and it is analysed through a harmonised set of analysis and tables.
- 18.5Data compilation
During the micro-filtration process, invalid values, inconsistency between variables and a partial non-response are detected and imputed. Depending on the characteristics of each type of error, different automatic imputation procedures are then used. In addition, errors detected in the prior analysis of provisional files are corrected.
Once micro-filtration is complete, a series of analysis is carried out to determine and analyse the estimates of the different aggregates. Before the final tabulation, macro-filtration techniques are used to remove inconsistencies and errors that were not detected at previous stages.
Given that the period to which this statistic's data refer is the whole academic year, no seasonal adjustment is required.
- 18.1Source data