The main objective of the survey is to provide indicators on the short-term evolution of the activity of companies operating in the service sector in Spain through two variables: turnover in nominal terms, i. e. at current prices, and employment.
This is a statistic per se with direct data collection. Results are presented as indices so as to measure variations as compared to the base year 2015.
The Services Sector Activity Indicators study the population formed by the companies whose main activity is described in sections G, (Trade), H (Transportation and Storage), I (Accommodation and Food Service), J (Information and Communications), part of section M (Professional, Scientific and Technical Activities) and part of section N (Administrative and Support Service Activities) in the National Classification of Economic Activities (CNAE 2009).
In section M the population belonging to group 70.1 (Activities of head offices) and divisions 72 (Scientific research and development) and 75 (Veterinary activities) are not studied.
In section N the population belonging to division 77 (Rental and leasing activities) and groups 81.1 (Combined facilities support activities) and 81.3 (Landscape service activities) are not studied.
The basic statistical unit is the company that carries out any of the economic activities included in the population scope as its main economic activity.
The company is the smallest combination of legal units that constitute an organisational unit that produces goods or services, and which has a certain degree of decision-making autonomy, especially with regard to the allocation of their current resources. A company may carry out one or more activities in one or more local units. A company may consist of a single legal entity.
The Services Sector Activity Indicators study the population made up of companies whose main economic activity Is described in sections G, (Trade), H (Transportation and Storage), I (Accommodation and Food Service), J (Information and Communications), M (Professional, Scientific and Technical Activities) and N (Administrative and Support Service Activities) of the National Classification of Economic Activities (CNAE-09).
All statistical units located in the Spanish territory, excluding Ceuta and Melilla, are the object of research. Information from these two Autonomous Cities is only included in division 47 of CNAE-09 (retail trade).
The historical series began in January 2000 except for those corresponding to the activities 58 of CNAE-09 (Publishing activities), which began in January 2002; and 59 (Motion picture, television programme production and music publishing activities), 60 of CNAE-09 (Programming and broadcasting) and the overall turnover and employment indices for the Autonomous Communities, which began in January 2005.
In 2018, the indices begin to be published using the new base 2015, in order to comply with the requirements established in Eurostat's Regulation 1165/98 on short-term statistics.
SSAI uses chain-linked indices so that:
Value indices and variation rates (monthly, annual and average of the year so far).
The turnover reference period is the calendar month .
The employment reference period is the employment average for the calendar month
Data referred to the period: Mensual A: 2019 MES: 01
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2017-2020, approved by Royal Decree 410/2016, of 31 October, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2017-2020. (Statistics of the State Administration).
Regulation nº 1158/2005 of the European Parliament and Council of 6 July 2005 amending the Regulation 1165/98 of the Council of the European Union of 19 May 1998 on short-term statistics, although the latter is still in force.
The Spanish version of the European Union standards that affect this statistical operation is available on the INE website, in the section on regulations..
Through the collaboration agreements signed with the regional Statistics Institutes, a monthly exchange of information takes place, complying with the established requirements to preserve statistical confidentiality.
In the Services Sector Activity Indicators questionnaire sent to the respondent units, it is expressly indicated that the data provided to the statistical services will be subject to protection and safeguarded by statistical confidentiality.
All statistical personnel will have the obligation to preserve statistical confidentiality (article 17.1 of the Law on the Public Statistics Function - LFEP).
All information related to this index is published on the INE website. The following publications can be found on the website:
All these publications can be consulted at the following link:link.
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.
Within INE's website : INEbase - Services - Global surveys on the service sector - Services sector activity indicators (SSAI), the indices and the different rates of variation in turnover and employment can be found at various levels of disaggregation by sector, branch and Autonomous Community. A distinction is made between index series of original turnover, adjusted for calendar effects and adjusted for seasonal and calendar effects, as well as the employment series. Both the series and the weightings used in the aggregate indices calculation can be consulted at the following link.
During 2018, a total of AC2=940 accesses to the INE website were recorded to consult the tables containing information related to the Services Sector Activity Indicators statistical operation.
The microdata of the Services Sector Activity Indicators are not accessible to the general public.
An anonymous microdata file is not published. It is only provided to the Central Statistics Offices of the Autonomous Communities (OCECAS) with which a collaboration agreement has been signed for the transmission of said information, by virtue of the Collaboration Framework Agreement between the INE and the OCECAS.
It is possible to tailored request information from the INE Information area. Limitations on confidentiality or accuracy are taken into account when processing such requests.
The metadata completeness rate, AC3, is the ratio of the amount of metadata elements supplied to the total number of elements in the standardised methodological report.
Metadata completeness rate, AC3=100%, as all the fields in the methodological file are filled in.
Sections 10.6 to 17.2 of this document are the user-oriented quality report for this operation.
Quality assurance framework for the INE statistics is based on the ESSCoP, the European Statistics Code of Practice made by EUROSTAT. The ESSCoP is made up of 16 principles, gathered in three areas: Institutional Environment, Processes and Products. Each principle is associated with some indicators which make possible to measure it. In order to evaluate quality, EUROSTAT provides different tools: the indicators mentioned above, Self-assessment based on the DESAP model, peer review, user satisfaction surveys and other proceedings for evaluation.
The Services Sector Activity Indicators statistical operation is carried out in accordance with EU guidelines, complying with the Code of Practice implemented by Eurostat and taking the necessary measures to ensure that the published indicators meet all the quality requirements.
One of the measures carried out to guarantee the quality of this statistical operation consists of comparing the results with other statistical sources, notably the following: Sales in Large Companies obtained by the Tax Agency (AEAT) from VAT returns, the Hotel Occupancy Survey by INE, Vehicle Registration by the General Directorate for Traffic, Registration Tax of the AEAT, the Labour Force Survey of the INE, etc... Therefore, when discrepancies are detected with any of the sources mentioned above, the available information is analysed in detail to explain the causes of these discrepancies.
The Services Sector Activity Indicators statistical operation is a high quality product. Its sample size offers information up to the Autonomous level within reasonable sampling errors, the harmonised methodology used allows comparisons to be offered at the international level with a high level of solvency and gives an extremely valuable measure on the services sector, which no other statistical source provides with the same level of detail.
As far as the limitations of the survey are concerned, it is necessary to point out those inherent to statistical operations by sampling, such as non-response and the aforementioned sampling errors or coefficients of variation of the estimates. In both cases, they are kept within reasonable limits.
Regulation 1158/2005 of the European Parliament and Council of 6 July 2005 establishes that the quality of the variables shall be checked periodically by comparing them to other statistical information. This comparison will be carried out by each of the Member States and by the Commission (Eurostat). Furthermore, internal consistency will be checked.
The quality criteria listed in Article 12(1) of Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 of the European Parliament and Council, namely relevance, accuracy, timeliness, punctuality, accessibility, clarity, comparability and coherence, shall also be met.
The Services Sector Activity Indicators statistical operation satisfies the statistical information needs of different user groups:
The INE itself, which uses this basic statistic to compile the national accounts.
Ministries and other public agencies that use the results of this statistical operation to carry out economic analysis, forecasts, prepare summary indicators of activity, etc.
Territorial administrations such as the Autonomous Communities . All the Statistics Institutes of the Autonomous Communities, pursuant to the agreements established between INE and these institutions, are sent the information on a monthly basis (microdata or regional indices already compiled) corresponding to companies in the survey sample based in that Autonomous Community and based outside that Autonomous Community but has premises there. With this information they can publish the Services Sector Activity Indicators at a higher level of detail for their Autonomous Community, useful for the measurement of the economic cycle and as a tool for regional economic analysis.
Researchers and academia, eCompanies and non-profit institutions (research services for companies, foundations, associations, etc.), Unions and employers' organisations, press and specialised media. As well as foreign users, both institutional and individuals. The former include Eurostat, European Central Bank and OECD.
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013 and 2016 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...
On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)
In addition to the satisfaction surveys carried out by the INE, meetings are held with associations from certain sectors, where their needs have been identified and suggestions have been taken on board.
In general, the published statistical information responds to the needs of the different types of users who access it. Firstly, to those established by European Regulation 1158/2005 on short-term statistics and secondly, to the regional needs discussed in the periodic meetings held by INE with the regional statistics institutes.
Rate of available obligatory statistical results, R1=100%.
Unanswered requests provide information that is studied for possible future modifications.
The sample design attempts to minimise sampling errors and the different survey processes are aimed at eliminating or reducing, as far as possible, survey errors, both in the collection phase (monitoring the response rate and controlling the filtering of errors) and in subsequent imputing of non-response and calculation of aggregate indices, which allows a high degree of reliability of the statistical operation to be obtained.
This statistical operation involves a sampling error that can be defined as the part of the difference between a population value and its estimate, obtained from a random sample, due to the fact that only a subset of the population is observed.
In order to estimate the accuracy achieved in the population parameter estimates with the sampling method used, the variation coefficient is used.
The mean variation coefficient for the national general Index 2018 with respect to 2017 is:
Average of sampling errors, A1, for 2018 (January - December) of the general turnover index: A1=1.231
Mean sampling errors, A1, for 2018 (January - December) of the general employment index: A1 = 0.323
In this survey, a continuous quantitative evaluation is carried out of non-sampling errors and the risks of bias associated with:
- Lack of coverage, excess coverage and duplicates in the framework
- Collection tools
- Total non-response, including causes for non-response and measures to reduce non-response
- Partial non-response in the main variables of the Statistical Operation
- Editing, coding and imputing of data
- Model used in the estimation
and the results of this measurement are analysed in order to carry out the appropriate actions to reduce the different error types.
An objective measurement is carried out, based on a quantitative indicator:
A4: Non-response rate
calculated as the percentage represented by the number of units without information with respect to the total of initially selected sampling units (i.e., discounting framework errors).
A4=8.36% (corresponding to the monthly mean for 2018).
To reduce the non-response rate in the annual rotation (when 25% of the non-exhaustive sample is substituted to avoid respondent fatigue), a reserve sample is available that leaves the field a few months earlier.
The SSAI is usually published in the second month following the reference month, thereby meeting the deadlines established by Eurostat.
The Opportunity, TP1, is the number of days between the last day of the data reference period and the day of the first publication.
Mean of TP1 Indicator. Year 2018: TP1=51 days
The Opportunity, TP2, is the number of days between the last day of the data reference period and the day of the five publication.
Mean of TP2 Indicator. Year 2018: TP2=172 days
The results are published promptly according to the availability calendar of short-term statistical publications prepared and published by the INE.
This calendar is fully complied with.
The availability of a methodology, a design with a sample size for which each of the Autonomous Communities are representative at the general and sector index level (Trade, Transport and storage, Accommodation and Food Service, Information and communications, Professional, scientific and technical activities and Administrative activities and support services) and a common process of collection, filtering, editing and updating in all its geographical scope, guarantees the comparability of the results between the different Autonomous Communities. On the other hand, the methodological adaptation to the EU regulation makes it possible to compare with the other European Union countries that release this same information referring to their respective national economies.
All historical series published of the Services Sector Activity Index are homogenous and, therefore, comparable over time.
Since the implementation of the survey, there have been changes in the index base and classification of the economic activities, however, in order to guarantee the comparability of the information over time, the INE has always published the retrospective series of the Services Sector Activity Indicators with the new base and the new classification.
The number of comparable elements (CC2), as of December 2018 was:
CC2=228 for turnover (corresponding to the series from January 2000 to December 2018).
CC2=204 for employment (corresponding to the series from January 2002 to December 2018).
The use of the same national classification of economic activities allows the comparison of survey information with other economic statistics such as the Sales of Large Companies by the Tax Agency, among others, with which there are no significant differences for the large aggregates.
Coherence is a fundamental matter both in the survey methodology approach and in the whole preparation process. The coherence between the variables is compared in all phases of the statistical process and no inconsistencies are found.
To significantly reduce the response burden on respondents, the questionnaire has been designed to include all the necessary information and at the same time to be as straightforward as possible in order to facilitate its completion by the companies making up the sample. This will help reduce, as far as possible, excessive use of certain respondent units arising from the completion of multiple surveys in the same year.
To prevent respondent fatigue and sample ageing an annual rotation of 25% is carried out, allowing the selection of newly created companies.
In terms of the cost associated with the collection and production of statistical products, in the case of the Services Sector Activity Indicators, the budgetary forecasts set out in the 2019 Annual Programme amount to 3,495.70 thousand euros.
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).
This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow: routine revision- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-; more extensive revision- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and exceptional revision- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.
At the date of each publication, the data for the last four months in the historical series is provisional, the data for the preceding months then becoming definitive. As an exception, when changing the base year, all the series remain provisional for a certain period of time.
The series adjusted for calendar effects and those corrected for seasonal and calendar effects are reviewed in their entirety every month.
The first time the index of a given month is published, it is deemed provisional, and does not become definitive until four months later. In this time frame, this index is revised by applying any changes in the data that may have occurred since the first publication date, generally due to the arrival of more information and therefore the substitution of the estimated data (due to non-response or poor quality) with the real data filled in by the company.
The MAR indicator measures the mean absolute revision. The calculation of the MAR for a given month considerrs the revisions of the 36 months preceding that month and the difference between the first and the most recent publication is taken into account (if there are not yet five publications for that month).
RMAR is the percentage assumed by the relative mean size of the revisions in relation to the values of the revised estimates.
The MAR and RMAR values of the year-on-year rates from the original series of the SSAI General Index obtained with information from the last 36 months (December 2018 being the last month considered) are:
A6_MAR turnover (December 2018): A6_MAR=0.039420
A6_RMAR turnover (December 2018): A6_RMAR=0.7032%
A6_MAR Employment (December 2018): A6_MAR=0.028958
A6_RMAR Employment (December 2018): A6_RMAR = 1.2146%
The MAR and RMAR values of the year-on-year rates from the series adjusted for calendar effects of the SSAI General Index obtained with information from the last 36 months (December 2018 being the last month considered) are:
A6_MAR turnover (December 2018): A6_MAR=0.052971
A6_RMAR turnover (December 2018): A6_RMAR=0,9446%
The data obtained for the statistical operation is based on a direct sampling survey.
The company population has been stratified according to three variables: Autonomous Community, branch of activity and size. The first two variables are mandatory in order to guarantee results by branches at national level, and by sectors (Trade, Transport and storage, Accommodation and Food Service, Information and communications, Professional, scientific and technical activities and Administrative activities and support services) at the Autonomous Community level. Size, measured by number of workers, has been taken into account for reasons of homogeneity, considering six intervals.
For the calculation of sample sizes, information from the Annual Services Survey has been used, taking into account the weight of the branches in the different sectors, and the variation coefficients of the employed personnel and turnover variables. Neyman allocation is performed in order to distribute the sample throughout the different strata, prefixing sampling errors at 4%, by branch at national level, and by sector in each Autonomous Community. The strata with 200 or more workers are exhaustive in all branches. In certain branches and Autonomous Communities, the smaller strata are also comprehensive due to their small population. All companies with several premises with 50 plus employees and companies with an annual turnover of 6 million euros or more are also selected.
The resulting sample is approximately 28,000 companies.
To prevent respondent fatigue and sample ageing an annual rotation of 25% is carried out, allowing the selection of newly created companies.
The data is collected monthly.
Survey data is obtained from the questionnaires completed by the companies making up the sample. The methods used are: postal mail, fax, telephone, e-mail or via the Internet, which is the most commonly used method, exceeding 60% of the total collection.
Validation rules are fundamentally established between related variables and in the same variable by comparison over time and are established in different stages of the statistical process from the internet questionnaire to the last stage of macro tabulation.
To validate the data, influence and impact measures of the turnover or employment of a company over the variation (monthly, annual) of the indices at different levels of aggregation are used.
Prior to starting the process for obtaining the indices that will be published regarding this statistical operation, the non-response is imputed to those units that have not provided the information corresponding to the reference month.
Subsequently, with the information received at the INE collection centres, the data filtering process begins. The process consists of two phases: in the first, a microdata filtering system is carried out, while the second consists of an analysis for different levels of aggregation, or macro-filtering.
The macro-filtering consists of checking data validity from each company, taking into account the historical series provided by the company itself. The analysis establishes month-on-month and year-on-year comparisons, so that the data is validated without re-contact when its evolution is repeated periodically.
The second part of the filtering is performed once the data is processed together. A centralised or macro-filtering process is carried out with the aggregated information. Unlike micro-filtering, in this phase the weightings of each activity form part of the calculation, taking into account the variation rates for different levels of aggregation, etc. In cases where information is available from other sources, a consistency process is carried out between these and the results of the survey.
As a result of the change of base to the new base 2015, the weightings have been updated, the data from the 2015 Structural Business Survey was used, specifically the 2015 average, and these values have been carried forward to December 2015 and December 2016 for the calculation of the new weightings. Once obtained, the aggregate indices for the years 2016 and 2017 were recalculated.
From the reference month January 2013 onwards, data adjusted for calendar effects (this was already being done) and adjusted for seasonal and calendar effects using a method based on models employing the most updated version of the Tramo-Seats programme are published.
Calendar effect: the impact produced in the time series of a variable due to the different structure of the months in the different years (both in length and composition), if the rest of the factors influencing said variable remain constant. The SSAI indicator is very sensitive to the calendar effect, since one more holiday in a particular month can lead to a proportional decrease in turnover for that month.
To correct this problem and obtain a series that compares production over time in a homogeneous way, the series is adjusted to take into account the following calendar factors: working days, Easter and leap year.
Once the calendar effects are eliminated, seasonal effects are eliminated accordingly. Seasonal fluctuations are movements that occur with similar intensity in each month and are expected to continue.
The seasonally adjusted series, i.e., corrected for seasonal and calendar effects, provides an estimate of what is "new" in a series (changes in the trend, cycle, and irregular component).
The method is based on regression models with intervention variables of the three mentioned effects.
The adjusted series is published together with the non-corrected series for the sake of a complete analysis of the situation.metadatosIASS-2019_base2015.xls