The Structural Business Statistics: Trade Sector is an annual structural statistical operation aimed at companies engaged in Trade activities (Section G of the CNAE-2009), which includes the sale and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles, wholesale trade and trade intermediaries and retail trade.
This operation enables the identification of the main structural and economic characteristics of businesses in the sector studied through a wide range of variables relating to employed staff, turnover and other incomes, purchases and consumption, staff, tax and investment expenditure.
As well as enabling the study of the transformations undergone in the sector studied, the other main uses are as follows:
Economic activity. The economic activity carried out by a business is defined as the creation of added value via the production of goods and services.
The businesses often carry out different activities that should be classified by the different classes of the National Classification of Economic Activities. Generally, the activities carried out by an economic unit are one of three kinds: main activity, secondary activity/ies and auxiliary activity/ies.
For the purposes of the SBS, businesses are classified according to their main activity, in other words, the activity that provides the greatest added value. However, as it is sometimes difficult for businesses to calculate or estimate this variable, if this information is not available the main activity will be considered to be that which creates the largest turnover or, failing this, that which employs the largest number of staff.
Size of the company.The size can be established in terms of the scale of turnover or production value, or by considering the number of people on the company's payroll. In this operation, the second option has been considered to determine the size of the companies, establishing size brackets by staff employed.
Geographic distribution, by Autonomous Community. Companies can have establishments or premises in different geographical locations and, furthermore, they can also carry out their leadership and administrative management at any of these sites or another located in the same or another Community. The SBS presents a breakdown by Autonomous Community for certain variables (number of premises, turnover, wages and salaries, investment in tangible assets and staff employed) taking the location of these premises into account.
INTEGRATION PROJECT OF THE STRUCTURAL SURVEYS OF THE INDUSTRY, TRADE AND SERVICES SECTORS
Up to and including reference year 2014, the structural business surveys of the industry, trade and services sectors were prepared through separate processes and with different data collection and publication calendars according to the different sectors studied.
From reference year 2015 and with the aim of homogenising and improving the production process of these operations, the statistical results and the release of information, the Integration Project of the Structural Economic Surveys began to be implemented and it has been used over two reference years (2015 and 2016) and has marked an important reform of the aforementioned statistical operations. These statistical operations were renamed, also done in order to highlight the idea of integration, to become the:
The reform comprised, amongst other things, the following improvements:
From reference year 2015:
From reference year 2016:
The new sample designs and the simultaneous organisation of data collection of the three sectors studied provide two different moments for the release of results:
The detail of the CNAE-2009 activities that constitute this statistics' population scope are as follows:
The basic statistical unit of this operation is the company, understood to be any organised unit which produces goods and services, and which has a certain degree of decision-making autonomy, mainly when using its current resources. The company can engage in one or more activities in one or more locations.
The aforementioned units of study should be perfectly defined and located and have the accounting and employment data needed for the analysis. Thus, the legal unit, which is also the respondent unit, has been considered to be a proxy of the concept of a “company” as, since it is perfectly defined and located and has the relevant accounting and employment data, the response is provided more easily and homogeneous information is obtained.
Target population of the Structural Business Statistics: Trade Sector is formed of companies, corporations and natural persons whose main activity is described in section G of the National Classification of Economic Activities (CNAE-2009):
From a geographic perspective, this statistic covers the whole of the national territory.
Regarding the publication of results, national results broken down by economic activity are provided, as well as the main results broken down by Autonomous Communities and Cities (5 main variables according to the activity groupings).
The Structural Business Statistics: Trade Sector is an annual statistic.
The data's reference period is, generally, the calendar year. As an exception, for companies that operate by seasons or campaigns that comprise two separate years and have their data accounted for in this way, their information refers to the season or campaign that ended in the survey's reference year.
There are results available starting from reference year 1999.
There are results available for this statistic starting from reference year 1999.
The data's reference period is, generally, the calendar year. As an exception, for companies that operate by seasons or campaigns that comprise two separate years and have their data recorded in this way, their information refers to the season or campaign that ended in the survey's reference year.
Regarding employed staff, to reduce the statistical burden on respondent companies, the SBS questionnaires exclusively request information on the company's staff to 30 September of the reference year. Subsequently, for each company, the aforementioned information is combined with the administrative registers on affiliation to Social Security to obtain the value of the average number of employed staff per year.
Data referring to the period: Annual Y: 2017
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2017-2020, approved by Royal Decree 410/2016, of 31 October, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2017-2020. (Statistics of the State Administration).
The Structural Business Statistics: Trade Sector is registered in the category of structural surveys in accordance with Regulation 295/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning structural business statistics, specifically in Annex III.
The Statistics Institute of Catalonia (IDESCAT) collaborates in the translation of the questionnaires.
To further reduce the statistical burden on respondent companies, both the Tax Agency (AEAT) and the General Social Security Treasury (TGSS) collaborate in this operation, providing administrative files whose information, combined with SBS data for each business, facilitates the reduction of the sample size and the removal of some of the questionnaires' variables.
In tailored requests the same process is carried out to preserve statistical secrecy.
Up to reference year 2015 inclusive, certain activities up to 4 digits of the CNAE-2009 were catalogued as CETO (Contribution to European Totals Only) when designing the samples for the given sectors. This measure, provided for in article 8.3 of Regulation 295/2008 concerning structural business statistics and applicable only to a limited number of less important activities over the total of each sector, enables the minimisation of increases in sample sizes. This means that the results for these activities are only representative for the preparation of aggregates at the European level and the commitment to not publish the aforementioned data at a national level and, therefore, nor at even a further disagregated level; autonomous or provincial.
The activity codes of the CNAE-2009 to 4 digits considered as CETO until reference year 2015 were:
4511 - 4519 - 4531 - 4532 – 4647 - 4648 - 4649 - 4665 - 4666 -
4741 - 4742 - 4743 - 4753 - 4754 - 4759 - 4763 - 4764 - 4765 - 4776 - 4777 - 4778 - 4781 - 4782 - 4789
From reference year 2016 inclusive, thanks to the reform and optimisation of the sample designs, all the activities to 4 digits of the CNAE-2009 in the scope of the study have their corresponding sample support, which made it possible to stop applying the CETO figure. Therefore, from the aforementioned year of publication of Final Results it is possible to offer, for all the activities not affected by confidential data, statistical results up to the level of 4 digits of the CNAE-2009.
This statistic is released annually.
From reference year 2016, the new sample designs and the simultaneous organisation of data collection of the three sectors studied provide two different moments for the release of results:
The survey results are released on the INE website (https://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/en/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736176902&menu=ultiDatos&idp=1254735576799) and some results are covered in publications such as the Anuario Estadistico (Statistical Yearbook), Cifras INE (INE Figures), etc.
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.
On INEBase, in the Services section, in Trade, select the Structural Business Statistics: Trade Sector. There, the Results can be explored in the menu on the left.
Access to tables and time series in the INEbase can be found at:
Number of consultations of data tables: AC1=35,118 consultations in 2018.
No microdata file is provided for this statistical operation. Microdata files are only provided to other statistical bodies (Statistical Institutes of Autonomous Communities) that also have an obligation to maintain statistical secrecy.
The data that are released annually aim to offer basic, and relevant, information on the survey's main results, which enables different users' requirements for information to be met.
Results are provided both at a national level, for the different disaggregations by activity, and at the level of Autonomous Communities according to the location of the premises.
It is helpful to note that the year-to-year variations obtained from the results of this survey may be due, on some occasions (to a greater or lesser degree), to changes in the structure of the corresponding reference populations (for example, changes in activity in certain companies that consequently mean that they are classified in a different activity sector to the previous year, etc.), so, not necessarily in all cases, the changes mentioned can be directly associated with a change (increase or decrease), of the same magnitude, in the manufacturing activity of the set of businesses of a certain sector or sub-population.
Finally, it must be highlighted that the release of this statistic is not exclusively limited to the tables offered here or covered in the publication. Safeguarding the restrictions derived from statistical secrecy or from the fact that the survey is sample-based, the existing computing procedures allow for tailored requests for aggregated data to be dealt with, which may be provided in the medium or format chosen by the user.
The request is made through the Information Area:
A detailed description can be found at:
On the basis of Regulation 275/2010 of the Commission and 295/2008 of the European Parliament and Council, the European Commission (Eurostat) evaluates the quality of the transferred data and publishes reports on the quality of European statistics. For this reason, each country provides information on the variation coefficients of the characteristics that are covered in this and at the requested level of disaggregation, as well as data on non-responses. The quality report contains quantitative and qualitative information. Eurostat provides information on the main quantitative indicators, calculated from the data provided by Member States.
This standardised methodological report contains, in sections 10.6 to 17, the elements of what constitutes the "User-oriented quality report" for this operation.
Quality assurance framework for the INE statistics is based on the ESSCoP, the European Statistics Code of Practice made by EUROSTAT. The ESSCoP is made up of 16 principles, gathered in three areas: Institutional Environment, Processes and Products. Each principle is associated with some indicators which make possible to measure it. In order to evaluate quality, EUROSTAT provides different tools: the indicators mentioned above, Self-assessment based on the DESAP model, peer review, user satisfaction surveys and other proceedings for evaluation.
The process of preparing the statistic has established controls to detect and correct errors with the aim of guaranteeing the statistical quality.
The collection of data in Collection Units has programmed for serious and second-tier errors, so data can be filtered as they are entered by the user. Throughout the collection and filtering of data, measures are adopted to reduce non-response.
Finally, once the data arrives at the Central Services, the data are subjected to additional micro- and macro-filtration controls, as well as comparison against other short-term Trade Sector surveys and with information from administrative sources, which enable a final product of sufficient quality to be guaranteed.
Commission Regulation 275/2010 establishes procedures for the evaluation of the series of data sent by the different Member States for the statistics of Annexes I to IX of SBS Regulation (EC) No 295/2008, according to the quality criteria outlined in article 12, section 1 of Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council, namely: relevance, accuracy, timeliness, punctuality, accessibility, clarity, comparability and coherence.
The statistic can be considered to be of high quality since a sufficiently representative sample is obtained from the target population on a national level and on the Autonomous Community level for each stratum of activity and company size. Furthermore, the data are subjected to adjustment criteria and year-to-year checks, as well as comparisons with administrative sources and other statistical operations.
Users of the statistic include:
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013 and 2016 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...
On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)
In the aforementioned satisfaction surveys, the Annual Trade Survey as it was previously known (now the Structural Business Statistics: Trade Sector) is located in the “Services” sector.
The statistic complies with the information requirements according to Regulation (EC) No 295/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning structural business statistics and according to Decision No 1297/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council on a Programme for the Modernisation of European Enterprise and Trade Statistics (MEETS).
It appears in the 2017-2020 National Statistics Plan in the section of structural information for the trade sector and in the EU Statistics Programme: Annual Enterprise Statistics.
Rate of completeness of the data: R1=100%
The sample design intends to reduce sampling errors and the different survey processes are aimed at eliminating or reducing its errors as much as possible, both in the collection stage (rate of response and filtering control) and in the later stages of editing and imputation.
The collection process, coverage control, filtering of errors and imputation of a non-response allows a high level of reliability to be obtained for this statistic.
Sampling errors of the main variables at different levels of disaggregation are calculated.
The tables published include information detailed by activities on the sampling errors of the main variables.
Sampling error for Turnover variable: A1=0.23%
Throughout the statistical process a non-sampling error control is carried out. Specific information on the non-response rate is also available.
Over-coverage rate: A2=10.5%
Non-response rate by unit: A4=18.6%
Regulation No 295/2008 concerning Structural Business Statistics (SBS) requires results to be available within 18 months after the end of the reference period. This target is complied with, with the statistic's Final Data is being published at t+18. Since reference year 2016, as well as publishing the Final Results, the Advance Results has also been published.
The data is disseminated according to the Structural Statistics availability calendar that INE prepares and publishes annually.
The availability of a methodology, a common design and collection, filtering, editing and elevation process throughout the geographic area guarantees the comparability of results between the different Autonomous Communities.
On the other hand, the methodological adaptation to the SBS Regulation makes it possible to compare with the rest of the European Union countries that release the same information for their respective sectors.
The use of a single national classification of economic activities allows for the possibility to compare information from the survey with other economic statistics such as, for example, short-term Services and Trade Sector statistics and the Central Business Register (Directorio Central de empresas DIRCE).
It is comparable on an international level, it covers the necessary information required by the various users of the statistic and it is a useful instrument for the National Accounts.
Furthermore, it serves as a framework for the updating of short-term indicators and for studying the transformations undergone in the sector.
Coherence is a fundamental matter both in the planning of the survey's methodology and throughout its preparation. The coherence between variables is compared at all stages of the statistical process.
INE, conscious of the statistical burden on companies, tries to apply certain methods to its questionnaires to reduce this burden as much as possible and, in all cases, it facilitates the completion of information required from respondents.
The following are some of the measures adopted in this operation to reduce the statistical burden:
The estimate of the budgetary appropriation necessary to finance this statistic, as provided for in the 2019 Annual Programme, is 2,138.47 thousand Euros.
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).
This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow: routine revision- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-; more extensive revision- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and exceptional revision- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.
From reference year 2016, two different moments were established for the dissemination of results:
Once the Final Results are published, they are then not subject to review.
From reference year 2016, two different moments were established for the dissemination of results:
The Final Results are not subject to review.
The sampling framework is obtained from the Central Business Register (Directorio Central de Empresas DIRCE), a list of companies that is updated once a year with administrative sources, mainly from tax and Social Security sources. Information from INE statistical operations are also used to update it.
The DIRCE contains information on the main economic activity, the number of employees and turnover, variables that are used in the sample design, and on identification and location data, necessary for the correct collection of the information.
SAMPLE DESIGN AND STRATIFICATION
All businesses with 50 or more employees are studied exhaustively and are thus included in the survey with probability 1. Also exhaustively included are the companies registered in the framework of the same reference year and that have 20 or more employees or that are relevant because of their turnover. Furthermore, the group of affiliates of foreign companies in Spain and companies with fewer than 50 employees but with large turnovers are studied exhaustively.
For the rest of the businesses, stratified random sampling is applied, taking the following as the stratification variables:
SAMPLE SIZE. ALLOCATION
Within each stratum, the average size of each sample is calculated using Neyman's optimal allocation, presetting a sampling error for the variable of number of employees and for the turnover variable.
In the "Structural Business Statistics. Methodology" document available on the INE website, more details can be found on sample design, estimators and the method for calculating sampling errors.
Data is collected between April and December every year.
For reference year t, data collection is organised in two stages or waves:
Completion of the questionnaire over the internet is promoted as much as possible and over 80% of the total questionnaires collected were completed this way. In any case, respondents have other response channels available to them (fax, postal mail or telephone).
The collection units are also responsible for responding to telephone lines to resolve respondents' doubts, and for the recording and filtering of questionnaires. Errors and anomalous data are subject to revision and, if necessary, informants will be contacted again by telephone.
During the questionnaire collection stage, the first filtering and coding processes are carried out on them. Both the electronic questionnaires that respondents fill out on the Internet as well as the application of collection management, recording and filtration used by INE's Collection Units have systems programmed to detect errors in order to validate data as they are entered by the user. It distinguishes between serious errors (which must be corrected) and second-tier anomalies (which, after confirmation, must be justified). Furthermore, during the collection and filtering of data, measures are also adopted to reduce non-responses.
The records made by the Collection Units form and feed into, at least fortnightly, the complete recorded files on which the later stages of joint information processing are carried out. These files are processed in the Central Services, where new information coverage control is carried out to guarantee the completeness of the recorded data, to detect duplicates and coverage errors and, at the same time, to carry out an initial assessment of the quality of the variables collected.
As the collection progresses and the complete recording files are formed, the data is subjected to additional micro-filtration controls at Central Services focused, selectively, on the detection and filtering of errors and inconsistencies in the variables of each record, as well as the filtering and imputation of content errors. Depending on the characteristics of each type of error, automatic imputation procedures are used in certain cases. Likewise, systematic errors detected in previously studies and analyses on recorded data are corrected.
Since reference year 2016 various methodological improvements have been applied to the Structural Business Statistics, included in the ‘Integration Project of the Structural Economic Surveys’. The aforementioned improvements are related to the treatment of companies that cause the target population to rise or fall in the reference year, as well as the imputation of non-response. On the other hand, the estimation of employment variables has been improved by using administrative sources.
For internal methodological studies, the conclusion was made that reconsidering the non-response brought with it a certain overestimation of monetary variables, as a significant part of the non-response is only active during part of the reference year. For this reason, it was decided that this reconsideration should be replaced with the application of different imputing techniques, based on administrative data. The minimum aim of these imputations was that both the turnover and the number of employees corresponds to the company's own value and during the year in question. The rest of the variables are imputed, using highly correlated administrative information, conditional on the two variables, which guarantees the global coherence of the imputed records.
For the effective sample (that from 2016 includes the lnon-response for the reasons explained above) the calculation of elevation factors is then carried out to determine the estimates of the different variables. The last stage, before the tabulation and release of the results, is obtaining analysis tables through macro-filtration techniques to eliminate the errors and inconsistencies detected. The data are also subjected to comparisons with other statistics (e.g., other short-term INE surveys on the sectors studied) and with information from administrative sources, in order to guarantee a final product of sufficient quality.
Not applicable as it is not necessary to seasonally adjust the data.