Annual Trade Survey
- 1.1Contact organisation
National Statistics Institute of Spain
- 1.5Contact mail address
Avenida de Manoteras 50-52 - 28050 Madrid
- 1.1Contact organisation
- 2Metadata update
- 2.1Metadata last certified
- 2.2Metadata last posted
- 2.3Metadata last update
- 2.1Metadata last certified
- 3Statistical presentation
- 3.1Data description
The Structural Business Statistics: Trade Sector is an annual structural statistical operation aimed at Enterprises engaged in Trade activities (Section G of the CNAE-2009), which includes the sale and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles, wholesale trade and trade intermediaries and retail trade.
This operation enables the identification of the main structural and economic characteristics of enterprises in the sector studied through a wide range of variables relating to employed staff, turnover and other incomes, purchases and consumption, staff, tax and investment expenditure.
As well as enabling the study of the transformations undergone in the sector studied, the other main uses are as follows:
- Meeting requests for information required by international agencies, in particular by the European Statistical Office (Eurostat) and to comply with the requirements of European SBS Regulations (Regulation 295/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning structural business statistics) and FATS ( Regulation 716/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the structure and activity of foreign affiliates).
- Provide basic information for the National Accounts.
- Serve as a framework for the updating of short-term indicators.
- Meet the statistical needs of the Autonomous Communities.
- Cater for other national and international users (institutions, businesses and associations, researchers, universities and, generally, anyone interested in the structural analysis of the economic sectors studied).
IMPORTANT NOTE ON THE STATISTICAL CONCEPT OF 'ENTERPRISE':
In accordance with the European Statistical System, the Structural Statistics of Enterprises have implemented for the 2018 financial year a new practical application of the statistical concept of 'Enterprise'. The reasons and details of the adaptation of the statistical concept of the Enterprise were announced by the INE in a Press Release of December 17, 2019.
Under this new approach, a Enterprise can be formed by one or several Legal Units, and in the latter case, the Statistical Enterprise will condense the economic and employment variables of the Legal Units that comprise it. This criterion differs from that previously applied, by which each separate Legal Unit was considered a business. Although the new approach affects only Legal Units that are part of business groups -which are highly relevant entities in terms of economics and employment- the statistical results of the SBS and its distribution by activities and sizes is affected. So that users can compare the SBS data under the traditional approach (based on separate Legal Units) and the new approach (based on Statistical Enterprises), for the 2018 reference year the INE has released both versions of the statistical results.
CLASSIFICATION VARIABLES :
Economic activity. The economic activity carried out by a enterprise is defined as the creation of added value via the production of goods and services. The enterprises often carry out different activities that should be classified by the different classes of the National Classification of Economic Activities. For the purposes of the SBS, enterprises are classified according to their main activity.
Size of the enterprise.The size can be established in terms of the scale of turnover or production value, or by considering the number of people on the enterprise's payroll. In this operation, the second option has been considered to determine the size of the enterprises, establishing size brackets by staff employed.
Geographic distribution, by Autonomous Community. Enterprises can have establishments or premises in different geographical locations and, furthermore, they can also carry out their leadership and administrative management at any of these sites or another located in the same or another Community. The SBS presents a breakdown by Autonomous Community for certain variables (number of premises, turnover, wages and salaries, investment in tangible assets and staff employed) taking the location of these premises into account.
- Variables on statistical units: number of enterprises, number of local units.
- Variables on employed staff: total employed staff, remunerated staff, hours worked by remunerated staff, full-time remunerated staff.
- Variables on income: Turnover, breakdown of turnover by geographical location, work carried out by the enterprise for assets, other management incomes, operating subsidies.
- Variables on stock variations: on finished and partly-finished products, raw materials and supplies, goods and services for resale.
- Variables on expenditure (except staff costs): total purchases of goods and services, consumption of goods and services for resale, consumption of raw materials, intermediate products and other supplies, expenditure on external services, taxes linked to production and products, other than VAT and special taxes.
- Variables on staff costs: total staff costs, wages and salaries, social charges, other staff costs.
- Variables on investments: investment in tangible assets, investment in intangible assets.
- Economic aggregates: production value, gross value added at factor cost, gross operating surplus.
- Indicators: productivity, average staff expenditure, added value rate, staff expenditure rate, gross operating rate, investment rate, rate of remunerated staff and female participation rate in remunerated staff.
INTEGRATION PROJECT OF THE STRUCTURAL SURVEYS OF THE INDUSTRY, TRADE AND SERVICES SECTORS
Up to and including reference year 2014, the structural business surveys of the industry, trade and services sectors were prepared through separate processes and with different data collection and publication calendars according to the different sectors studied.
From reference year 2015 and with the aim of homogenising and improving the production process of these operations, the statistical results and the release of information, the Integration Project of the Structural Economic Surveys began to be implemented and it has been used over two reference years (2015 and 2016) and has marked an important reform of the aforementioned statistical operations. These statistical operations were renamed, also done in order to highlight the idea of integration, to become the:
- Structural Business Statistics: Industrial Sector (previously the Industrial Enterprises Survey)
- Structural Business Statistics: Trade Sector (previously the Annual Trade Survey)
- Structural Business Statistics: Services Sector (Previously the Annual Services Survey)
Details on the changes and improvements implemented since the 2015 reference year can be found in the document "Structural Business Statistics. Methodology "available on the INE website together with the statistical results of the operation.
- 3.2Classification system
- Comunidades y Ciudades Autónomas
03 Asturias, Principado de
04 Balears, Illes
07 Castilla y León
08 Castilla - La Mancha
10 Comunitat Valenciana
13 Madrid, Comunidad de
14 Murcia, Región de
15 Navarra, Comunidad Foral de
16 País Vasco
17 Rioja, La
1 Inversión en activos materiales
1.1 Terrenos y bienes naturales
1.2 Edificios, construcciones y reformas
1.3 Instalaciones técnicas
1.4 Maquinaria y utillaje
1.5 Elementos de transporte y otros
2 Inversión en activos intangibles
- Países (España)
11X108 Unión Europea sin España
01T05X11 Otros países
- Personal ocupado, intervalos
O0T9 De 0 a 9 personas ocupadas
O10T19 De 10 a 19 personas ocupadas
O20T49 De 20 a 49 personas ocupadas
O50T249 De 50 a 249 personas ocupadas
O-GE250 250 o más personas ocupadas
- Personal ocupado, intervalos
O0T1 De 0 a 1 personas ocupadas
O2T9 De 2 a 9 personas ocupadas
O10T19 De 10 a 19 personas ocupadas
O20T49 De 20 a 49 personas ocupadas
O50T249 De 50 a 249 personas ocupadas
O-GE250 250 o más personas ocupadas
- Servicios exteriores
1 Investigación y desarrollo
2 Arrendamientos y cánones
3 Reparaciones y conservación
4 Servicios de profesionales independientes ajenos al sector
5 Transportes realizados por terceros
6 Primas de seguros no sociales
7 Servicios bancarios y similares
8 Publicidad, propaganda y relaciones públicas
9 Suministros (electricidad, gas, agua etc...)
- 3.3Sector coverage
The detail of the CNAE-2009 activities that constitute this statistics' population scope are as follows:
- Division 45: Sale and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles.
- Division 46: Wholesale trade and trade intermediaries, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles.
- Division 47: Retail trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles.
- 3.4Statistical concepts and definitions
- Social security costs
Employers' social security costs correspond to an amount equal to the value of the social contributions incurred by employers in order to secure for their employees the entitlement to social benefits.
This includes the total amounts invoiced by the observation unit, during the reference period, for the sales of goods and services supplied to third parties, considering both those carried out directly by the observation unit itself, and those from temporary outsourcing.
These sales of goods or services are accounted for in net terms, that is, including the charges to the client (transport, packages, etc.), though invoiced separately, but deducting the discount on sales for early payment, returns of sales or the value of returned packages, as well as taxes on sales. This includes taxes and fees on goods or services invoiced by the unit, but excludes the VAT paid by the client.
From an administrative point of view, the General Accounting Plan (PGC) (RD 1514/2007, of 16 November) defines the Total net value of turnover, using the following accounting items: C700+C701+C702+C703+C704+C705-C706-C708-C709 with:
C700. Sales of merchandise
C701. Sales of finished products
C702. Sales of semi-finished products
C703. Sales of sub-products and waste
C704. Sales of packages and packaging
C705. Provision of services
C706. Discount on sales for early payment
C708. Returns of sales and similar transactions
C709. "Taxes" on sales
Therefore, turnover includes neither subsidies nor other operating income. It also excludes financial and extraordinary income, and other income that affects the results of the fiscal year.
- Purchases of goods and services purchased for resale in the same condition as received
Purchases for resale are purchases of goods for resale to third parties without further processing. It also includes purchases of services by "invoicing" service companies, i.e. those whose turnover is composed not only of agency fees charged on a service transaction (as in the case of estate agents) but also the actual amount involved in the service transaction, e.g. transport purchases by travel agents. The value of goods and services which are sold to third parties on a commission basis are excluded since these goods are neither bought nor sold by the agent receiving the commission.
- Consumo de materias primas, productos intermedios y otros aprovisionamientos
Son las compras de materias primas, productos intermedios y otros aprovisionamientos menos la variación de existencias de los mismos.
The company corresponds to an organisation unit that produces goods and services, and that enjoys a certain autonomy in decision-making, mainly at the time of using the available current resources. The company carries out one or more economic activities in one or more places.
- Establishment or Local Unit
Establishment or Local Unit is the productive unit located in a topographically marked place (workshop, mine, factory, etc.), from which economic activities are carried out by one or more persons from the same company.
The establishment or Local Unit is the observation or information unit, that is, the unit chosen from the directory and to which the questionnaire data is to refer
- Gross operating surplus
Gross operating surplus is the surplus generated by operating activities after the labour factor input has been recompensed. It can be calculated from the value added at factor cost less the personnel costs. It is the balance available to the unit which allows it to recompense the providers of own funds and debt, to pay taxes and eventually to finance all or a part of its investment.
- Personnel costs
Personnel costs means the total remuneration, in cash or in kind, to be paid by an employer to an employee (either fixed, temporary or homeworker) in exchange for a work done by this person during the reference period.
Staff costs also include taxes and social security contributions of employees retained by the unit, as well as the employer's compulsory and voluntary social contributions.
Staff costs are composed of:
-Salaries and salaries
-Employer costs of social security
Any remuneration paid during the reference period is included, regardless of whether it is paid on the basis of the working day, the production or the piecework, and whether it is paid periodically or not. Also included are all bonuses, productivity and performance premiums, unpaid payments, extraordinary (and similar) pay, redundancy allowances, accommodation and transportation, cost-of-living premiums and Family allowances, commissions, attendance bonuses, overtime, night work, etc., as well as taxes, social security contributions and other amounts payable by employees and retained at the source by Employers.
The employer's social security costs are also included. These include the employer's social security contributions aimed at covering retirement, sickness, maternity, disability, unemployment, occupational accidents and illnesses, family allowances and other contingencies. These costs are included regardless of whether they are statutory, the subject of a collective agreement, contractual or voluntary
- Expenses on external services
This concept comprises the total amount corresponding to the set of operating expenses of a different nature, carried out by the company during the reference year, such as expenditure on research and development, leases and taxes, repairs and preservation, independent professional services, transport, insurance premiums, bank services and the like, advertising, propaganda and public relations, supplies and other services.
- Number of hours worked by employees
The total number of hours worked by employees represents the aggregate number of hours actually worked for the output of the observation unit during the reference period.
Comprende las transferencias realizadas durante el año de referencia para la obtención de activos destinados a servir de forma duradera en las actividades de la empresa.
También comprende las mejoras, transformaciones y reparaciones que prolonguen la vida útil normal, o aumenten la productividad de los capitales fijos existentes. No se incluyen aquellos gastos corrientes de reparación y mantenimiento.
Se valoran a precio de adquisición, si se compran a terceros, y a coste de producción, si se producen por la propia empresa, incluidos los gastos de instalación y todos los derechos y cánones posibles, pero excluidos el IVA soportado y deducible y los gastos de financiación.
Se distingue entre:
- Inversión en inmovilizado material (terrenos, construcciones, maquinaria, utillaje, mobiliario, ordenadores, vehículos,)
- Inversión en inmovilizado intangible (concesiones administrativas, propiedad industrial, aplicaciones informáticas)
- Gross investment in construction and alteration of buildings
This variable covers expenditure during the reference period on the construction or conversion of buildings. Purchases of new buildings that have never been used are included. Also included are all additions, alterations, improvements and renovations which prolong the service life or increase the productive capacity of buildings. Included are permanent installations such as water supply, central heating, air conditioning, lighting etc. as well as construction expenditure related to oil wells (drilling), operational mines, pipe lines, power transmission lines, gas-pipes, railway lines, port installations, roads, bridges, viaducts, drains and other site improvements. Current maintenance costs are excluded.
- Gross investment in existing buildings and structures
The investment includes the cost of the existing buildings (that have been used before) and structures which have been acquired during the reference period. Purchases of new buildings that have never been used are excluded. Existing buildings and structures acquired through restructurations (such as mergers, take-overs, break-ups, split-off) are excluded.
- Gross investment in machinery and equipment
This variable covers machinery (office machines, etc.), special vehicles used on the premises, other machinery and equipment, all vehicles and boats used off the premises, i.e. motor cars, commercial vehicles and lorries as well as special vehicles of all types, boats, railway wagons, etc. acquired new or second hand during the reference period.. Machinery and equipment acquired through restructurations (such as mergers, take-overs, break-ups, split-off) are excluded. Also included are all additions, alterations, improvements and renovations which prolong the service life or increase the productive capacity of these capital goods. Current maintenance costs are excluded.
- Gross investment in land
Included under this variable, in addition to land, are underground deposits, forests and inland waters. Also included here is land merely improved by levelling, the laying of pipes or by the provision of paths or roads. Land acquired through restructurations (such as mergers, take-overs, break-ups, split-off) is excluded.
- Inversión en activos intangibles
Se refieren a los gastos de la empresa por la adquisición de elementos de larga duración que no son materiales tales como concesiones, patentes, licencias, marcas comerciales, diseños, derechos de autor,....Incluyen los gastos en investigación y desarrollo activados, concesiones administrativas, propiedad industrial, fondo de comercio, derecho de traspaso de locales e inversiones en aplicaciones informáticas.
- Gross investment in tangible goods
Investment during the reference period in all tangible goods. Included are new and existing tangible capital goods, whether bought from third parties, acquired under a financial lease contract (i.e. the right to use a durable good in exchange for rental payments over a predetermined and protracted term) or produced for own use (i.e. Capitalised production of tangible capital goods), having a useful life of more than one year including non-produced tangible goods such as land. The threshold for the useful life of a good that can be capitalised may be increased according to company accounting practices where these practices require a greater expected useful life than the 1 year threshold indicated above.
- Inversión en edificios, construcciones y reformas
Tipo de inversión en activos materiales. Incluye el coste de edificios y estructuras existentes (que ya han sido utilizados) adquiridos durante el período de referencia. En los casos en que el terreno se compre con edificios y que el valor de los dos componentes no sea separable, el total se registra en este epígrafe si se estima que el valor de los edificios supera el de terreno.
- Inversión en elementos de transporte y otros
Tipo de inversión en activos materiales. Se incluyen vehículos de todas clases destinados al transporte terrestre, marítimo o aéreo de personas, animales o mercancías, así como otro inmovilizado material como mobiliario, equipos para procesamiento de la información, material y equipos de oficina y otras inmovilizaciones materiales no indicadas anteriormente.
- Inversión en instalaciones técnicas
Tipo de inversión en activos materiales. Las instalaciones técnicas son unidades complejas de uso especializado en el proceso productivo (edificaciones, maquinaria, material, piezas o elementos, incluidos los sistemas informáticos que, aun siendo separables por naturaleza, están ligados de forma definitiva para su funcionamiento).
- Inversión en maquinaria y utillaje
Tipo de inversión en activos materiales. Máquinas o bienes de equipo utilizadas para la elaboración de los productos así como los utensilios o herramientas destinados a este mismo fin y que se pueden utilizar autónomamente o conjuntamente con la maquinaria.
- Inversión en terrenos y bienes naturales
Tipo de inversión en activos materiales cuando el bien comprende los solares de naturaleza urbana, fincas rústicas, otros terrenos no urbanos, minas y canteras, excluyéndose cualquier construcción efectuada en la superficie. Se incluye la adaptación de terrenos y bienes naturales (nivelación, colocación de tuberías, o caminos y carreteras).
- Gross margin on goods for resale
Corresponds to the return on the activity of purchase and resale without further processing. It is calculated from turnover, purchases and changes in stocks of goods and services purchased for resale in the same condition as received.
- Otros gastos de personal
Son obligaciones expresas o tácitas a largo plazo, claramente especificadas en cuanto a su naturaleza, pero que, en la fecha de cierre del ejercicio, son indeterminadas en cuanto a su importe exacto o a la fecha en que se producirán (retribuciones a largo plazo mediante sistemas de prestación definida, retribuciones al personal liquidadas en efectivo basado en instrumentos de patrimonio, exceso de provisión por retribuciones al personal, exceso de provisión por transacciones con pagos basados en instrumentos de patrimonio).
- Otros ingresos de gestión
Incluye otros ingresos diferentes a los considerados en la cifra de negocios, tales como ingresos por arrendamientos, ingresos de propiedad industrial cedida en explotación, ingresos por comisiones, ingresos por servicios al personal (tales como economatos transportes, viviendas, etc.), ingresos originados por la prestación eventual de ciertos servicios a otras empresas o particulares (eventuales servicios de transporte, asesorías, informes), etc. No incluye las subvenciones a la explotación.
- Payments for agency workers
Included in this figure are payments to temporary employment agencies and similar organisations supplying workers to clients' businesses for limited periods of time to supplement or temporarily replace the working force of the client, where the individuals provided are employees of the temporary help service unit. However, these agencies and organisations do not provide direct supervision of their employees at the clients' work sites. Only the payments for the provision of personnel which is not linked to the provision of a particular industrial or other non-industrial service is included.
- Personal no remunerado
El personal ocupado no remunerado está constituido por las personas que trabajan con regularidad en la unidad de observación y no perciben una remuneración en forma de sueldo, salario, comisión, gratificación, destajo o en especie.
- Personal ocupado
Se corresponde con el número total de personas que trabajan en la unidad de observación (incluidos los propietarios que trabajan, los socios que trabajan con regularidad en la unidad y los familiares no retribuidos que trabajan con regularidad en la unidad) y el de personas que, aunque trabajan fuera de la unidad, pertenecen a ella y son retribuidas por ella (por ejemplo, los representantes de comercio, el personal de mensajería y los equipos de reparación y mantenimiento que trabajan por cuenta de la unidad de observación). Incluye tanto al personal remunerado como al no remunerado.
- Personal remunerado
Son las personas que trabajan para un empresario, tienen un contrato de trabajo y perciben una remuneración en forma de sueldo, salario, comisión, gratificación, destajo o en especie (deben incluirse todas las personas cuyos pagos se registran en el epígrafe "Costes de personal" en la cuenta de pérdidas y ganancias de la empresa, incluso cuando, en algunos casos, no exista contrato de trabajo).
- Personal remunerado equivalente a tiempo completo
Es una medida del personal asalariado, calculada como la suma del personal asalariado a tiempo completo que trabaja todo el año, más la suma de fracciones de tiempo del personal asalariado que trabaja en régimen de dedicación parcial, o que no trabaja todo el año, es decir considerando las fracciones de tiempo de aquellas personas cuyo horario de trabajo sea inferior a una jornada estándar, inferior al número estándar de días laborables por semana o inferior al número estándar de semanas o meses por año.
La conversión a equivalente a jornada completa debe llevarse a cabo sobre la base del número de horas, días, semanas o meses trabajados. El equivalente a tiempo completo se calcula por separado en cada grupo de empleos, y luego se suma.
This is the quotient between added value at factor cost, and the average number of persons employed over the course of the year. It is expressed in euros and represents the contribution of each employed person (remunerated or not) to the income generation of the company; it is an indirect measurement of the relative weight of the work factor in each activity.
- Average wages
This is the quotient between the salaries and wages paid to those remunerated, and the average number of wage earners during the year, expressed in euros. This facilitates the comparative analysis of the average remuneration paid to the wage earners for each activity.
- Subvenciones a la explotación
Este concepto incluye los importes de las transferencias concedidas a la empresa por las Administraciones Públicas, empresas o particulares con el fin de asegurar a ésta una rentabilidad mínima, compensar déficit de explotación del ejercicio o de ejercicios anteriores, o permitir una remuneración suficiente de los factores de producción.
- Wages and salaries
Wages and salaries are defined as "the total remuneration, in cash or in kind, payable to all persons counted on the payroll (including homeworkers), in return for work done during the accounting period." regardless of whether it is paid on the basis of working time, output or piece-work and whether it is paid regularly or not.
- Tasa bruta de explotación
Es la proporción que el excedente bruto de explotación representa respecto a la cifra de negocios. Aparece expresado en tanto por cien.
- Rates of personnel costs
Proportion that personnel costs represent with regard to added value. It may be considered a measurement of the participation of remunerated employment in the distribution of the income generated in the sector. Their complement is the Gross Operating Surplus Rate.
- Tasa de inversión
Es la proporción que inversión total (tanto en activos materiales como intangibles) representa respecto al valor añadido a coste de los factores. Aparece expresado en tanto por cien.
- Wage-earner rate
Percentage of the number of wage earners, as compared with the number of total employed persons (paid and unpaid) at 30 September. Its complementary aspect measures the degree of autonomous employment in each sector.
- Added value rate
This is defined as the percentage represented by the gross added value at factor cost with regard to the production value, and shows the income generation capacity per product or service unit. Nearly all activities in the services sector are characterised by high added-value rates.
- Total purchases of goods and services
Purchases of goods and services include the value of all goods and services purchased during the accounting period for resale or consumption in the production process, excluding capital goods the consumption of which is registered as consumption of fixed capital. The goods and services concerned may be either resold with or without further transformation, completely used up in the production process or, finally, be stocked.
Included in these purchases are the materials that enter directly into the goods produced (raw materials, intermediary products, components), plus non-capitalised small tools and equipment. Also included are the value of ancillary materials (lubricants, water, packaging, maintenance and repair materials, office materials) as well as energy products. Included in this
variable are the purchases of materials made for the production of capital goods by the unit.
Services paid for during the reference period are also included regardless of whether they are industrial or non-industrial. In this figure are payments for all work carried out by third parties on behalf of the unit including current repairs and maintenance, installation work and technical studies. Amounts paid for the installation of capital goods and the value of capitalised goods are excluded.
Also included are payments made for non-industrial services such as legal and accountancy fees, patents and licence fees (where they are not capitalised), insurance premiums, costs of meetings of shareholders and governing bodies, contributions to business and professional associations, postal, telephone, electronic communication, telegraph and fax charges, transport services for goods and personnel, advertising costs, commissions (where they are not included in wages and salaries), rents, bank charges (excluding interest payments) and all other business services provided by third parties. Included are services which are transformed and capitalised by the unit as capitalised production.
Expenditure classified as financial expenditure or as revenue in the form or interests and dividends is excluded from the total purchases of goods and services.
Purchases of goods and services are valued at the purchase price, i.e. the price the purchaser actually pays for the products, including any taxes less subsidies on the products bought excluding however value added type taxes.All other taxes and duties on the products are therefore not deducted from the valuation of the purchases of goods and services. The treatment of taxes on production is not relevant in the valuation of these purchases.
For the statistics on activities defined in Section 3 of Annexes I to IV, of Regulation (EC) No 295/2008 except for the enterprises with an activity classified in NACE Rev.2 Section K, expenditure classified as financial expenditure in company accounts is excluded from the total purchases of goods and services.
For the statistics on activities of NACE Rev.2 groups 65.1 and 65.2, the total purchases of goods and services is defined as the gross value of reinsurance services received plus total of commissions as referred to in Article 64 of Council Directive 91/674 plus any other external expense on goods and services (excluding personnel costs).
For the statistics on activities defined in Section 3 of Annex VI of Regulation (EC) No 295/2008, the total purchases of goods and services is defined as commissions payable plus other administrative expenses plus other operating charges.
- Trabajos realizados por la empresa para su activo
Este concepto recoge la contrapartida de los gastos realizados por la empresa para su inmovilizado utilizando sus propios equipos y personal. Puede afectar tanto al inmovilizado material (instalaciones técnicas, equipos para procesos de información, grandes reparaciones o mejoras, etc.), a las inversiones inmobiliarias (terrenos, edificios y construcciones como inversión), como a activos intangibles (aplicaciones informáticas, investigación y desarrollo, producciones audiovisuales, etc)
Este concepto incluye tanto la producción de bienes de equipo o edificaciones, como las grandes reparaciones y mejoras realizadas sobre los ya existentes con el fin de aumentar la vida útil del bien, su capacidad de producción o su rendimiento. También se incluye dentro de esta rúbrica la contrapartida de los gastos que se activan correspondientes a los pagos efectuados a otras empresas en concepto de retribución por los trabajos encargados a las mismas con fines de investigación y desarrollo (gastos de I + D extramuros).
- Value added at factor cost
The value added at factor cost is the gross income from operating activities after adjusting for operating subsidies and indirect taxes.
It can be calculated from turnover, plus capitalised production, plus other operating income (including operating subsidies), plus or minus the changes in stocks, minus the purchases of goods and services, minus other taxes on products which are linked to turnover but not deductible, minus the duties and taxes linked to production. The duties and taxes linked to production are compulsory, unrequited payments, in cash or in kind which are levied by general government, or by the Institutions of the European Union, in respect of the production and importation of goods and services, the employment of labour, the ownership or use of land, buildings or other assets used in production irrespective of the quantity or the value of goods and services produced or sold. Alternatively it can be calculated from gross operating surplus by adding personnel costs.
Income and expenditure classified as financial in company accounts according to the 4th Accounting Directive (78/660/EEC) is excluded from value added. Income and expenditure classified as interest income, dividend income, foreign exchange gain from foreign currency borrowings related to interest costs, gains on redemption and extinguishment of debt or finance costs according to Commission Regulation (EC) 1725/2003 are excluded from value added.
Value added at factor costs is calculated "gross" as value adjustments (such as depreciation and impairment losses) are not subtracted.
For the statistics on activities of NACE rev.2 groups 65.1 and 65.2, the value added at factor costs is defined as production value minus gross value of reinsurance services received minus commissions minus other external expenditure on goods and services.
For the statistics on activities defined in Section 3 of Annex VI of Regulation (EC) No 295/2008, the value added at factor costs is defined as production value less total purchases of goods and services.
For the statistics on activities defined in Section 3 of Annex VII of Regulation (EC) No 295/2008, the value added at factor costs is defined as production value less total purchases of goods and services.
For the enterprises of the NACE Rev.2 class 64.11, the value added at factor costs is defined as production value less total purchases of goods and services.
- Valor añadido a precio de mercado
El valor añadido a precios de mercado se calcula a partir del valor de la producción menos los gastos de explotación distintos de los destinados a la reventa (consumo de materias primas, productos intermedios y otros aprovisionamientos y gastos en servicios exteriores).
- Production value
The production value measures the amount actually produced by the unit, based on sales, including changes in stocks and the resale of goods and services.
The production value is defined as turnover or revenue from sales of goods and rendering of services, plus or minus the changes in stocks of finished products, work in progress and goods and services purchased for resale, minus the purchases of goods and services for resale (only for the goods and services sold during the reporting period and excluding the costs of storage and transport of the goods purchased for resale), plus capitalised production, plus other (operating and extra-ordinary) income (excluding subsidies). Income and expenditure classified as financial or as revenue in the form of interests and dividends in company accounts is excluded from production value. Included in purchases of goods and services for resale are the purchases of services purchased in order to be rendered to third parties in the same condition.
Note : Capitalised production includes the own-account production of all goods that are retained by their producers as investment. The latter includes the production of fixed tangible assets (buildings, etc.) as well as intangible assets (development of software, etc.). Capitalised production is unsold production and is valued at production cost. Note that these capital goods are also to be included in investment.
Note : Other (operating and extra-ordinary) income is a company accounting heading. The contents of this heading may vary between sectors and over time and as such can not be defined precisely for statistical purposes.
For the statistics on activities of NACE Rev.2 groups 65.1 and 65.2, the production value is defined gross premiums earned plus total portfolio investment income plus other services produced minus gross claims incurred, excluding claims management expenses plus capital gains and provisions.
For the statistics on activities defined in Section 3 of Annex VI of Regulation (EC) No 295/2008, the production value is defined as interest receivable and similar income less interest payable and similar charges plus commissions receivable plus income from shares and other variable-yield securities plus net profit or net loss on financial operations plus other operating income.
For the statistics on activities defined in Section 3 of Annex VII of Regulation (EC) No 295/2008, the production value is defined as turnover less insurance premiums payable plus investment income plus other income plus insurance claims receivable less total expenditure on pensions less net change in technical provisions.
For the enterprises of the NACE Rev.2 class 64.11 (central banks) the production value is defined as interest receivable and similar income less interest payable
- Variación de existencias de productos terminados y en curso
Importe correspondiente a la diferencia entre las existencias finales e iniciales (al final y al principio del año de referencia de los datos) de los distintos productos (terminados, semiterminados, en curso, subproductos, residuos y materiales recuperados) fabricados por la empresa. Estas existencias se valoran al coste de producción.
- Change in stocks of goods and services
Change in stocks (positive or negative) is the difference between the value of the stocks at the end and the beginning of the reference period. Change in stocks may be measured by the value of entries into stocks less the value of withdrawals and the
value of any recurrent losses of goods held in stocks. Stocks are recorded at purchaser's prices exclusive of VAT if they are purchased from another unit, otherwise at production cost.
- Change in stocks of goods and services purchased for resale in the same condition as received
It refers to the change in stocks at purchaser's prices exclusive of VAT between the end and the beginning of the reference period. The change in stocks may be measured by the value of entries into stocks of products purchased for resale less the value of withdrawals and the value of any recurrent losses of goods held in stocks.
- Sales of tangible investment goods
Sales of tangible goods includes the value of existing tangible capital goods, sold to third parties. Sales of tangible capital goods are valued at the price actually received (excluding VAT), and not at book value, after deducting any costs of ownership transfer incurred by the seller. Value adjustments and disposals other than by sale are excluded
- Social security costs
- 3.5Statistical unit
The basic statistical unit for these operations is the enterprise, which is understood as “the smallest combination of legal units that is an organizational unit producing goods or services, which benefits from a certain degree of autonomy in decision-making, especially for the allocation of its current resources. An enterprise carries out one or more activities at one or more locations. An enterprise may be a sole legal unit “’ (definition of the Regulation of the European Union 696/93).
As previously explained in section 3.1, a new operational concept for 'Enterprise' is applied for the 2018 SES, which we will hereinafter call the Statistical Enterprise and which differs from previous years in that, beginning this year, the Enterprise = Legal Unit analogy will no longer always be true. In other words, some Statistical Enterprises may be made up of two or more Legal Units.
The reporting unit , or rather, the unit from which the basic information is obtained is the Legal Unit. Given that it is perfectly defined and located and has accounting and employment data, the answer is facilitated and homogeneous information is obtained. The Legal Units can be legal persons (mercantile Enterprises) or physical persons (individual entrepreneurs).
Obtaining the basic information from the Legal Units comes either from direct collection (by filling in questionnaires) or, increasingly, from the use of administrative sources (tax data for economic variables, and data from the Social Security for variables related to employment).
- Under the Legal Unit approach as a statistical unit, the information is obtained from the Legal Units, and the statistics are prepared under said Legal Units.
- Under the Statistical Enterprise approach as a statistical unit, the information is obtained from each of the Legal Units that make up the Enterprise, and the statistics are prepared by grouping (and where necessary, consolidating) the variables of all the Legal Units that make up the enterprise.
- 3.6Statistical population
Target population of the Structural Business Statistics: Trade Sector is formed of enterprises, corporations and natural persons whose main activity is described in section G of the National Classification of Economic Activities (CNAE-2009):
- Division 45: Wholesale and retail trade and repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles.
- Division 46: Wholesale trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles.
- Division 47: Retail trade, except of motor vehicles and motorcycles.
- 3.7Reference area
From a geographic perspective, this statistic covers the whole of the national territory.
Regarding the publication of results, national results broken down by economic activity are provided, as well as the main results broken down by Autonomous Communities and Cities (5 main variables according to the activity groupings).
- 3.8Time coverage
The Structural Business Statistics: Trade Sector is an annual statistic.
The data's reference period is, generally, the calendar year. As an exception, for the Legal Units (which are the reporting units) that operate by seasons or campaigns that comprise two separate years and have their data accounted for in this way, their information refers to the season or campaign that ended in the survey's reference year.
There are results available starting from reference year 1999.
- 3.9Base period
There are results available for this statistic starting from reference year 1999.
- Series until 2007: Results based on the old National Classification of Economic Activities (CNAE-93)
- 2008 series onwards: Results based on the current National Classification of Economic Activities (CNAE-2009)
The implementation of the "Integration Project of the Structural Economic Surveys" throughout the reference years of 2015 and 2016 represented a harmonisation of the dissemination plan for the industry, trade and services sectors, as well as certain methodological improvements. In general, an attempt has been made to maintain the series' continuity and to offer more detailed results. If the changes implemented had an impact on certain variables, the statistical publication included complementary information allow for time comparison. See more details in section 15.2.
For the 2018 reference year, the new practical application of the statistical concept of 'Enterprise' is implemented. This change affects the statistical results of the SBS, and its distribution by activities and sizes. So that users can compare the SBS data under the traditional approach (based on separate Legal Units) and the new approach (based on Statistical Enterprises), for the 2018 reference year the INE has released both versions of the statistical results .
Since the reference year 2019, only the version based on Statistical Enterprises prevails.
- 3.1Data description
- 4Unit of measure
- 4.1Unit of measure
- Economic variables: in thousands of Euros at current prices.
- Hours worked by remunerated staff : in thousands of hours.
- Variables relating to employed staff and number of Enterprises: in units.
- Productivity and average staff expenditure: in Euros per employee.
- Other indicators: percent.
- 4.1Unit of measure
- 5Reference period
- 5.1Reference period
The data's reference period is, generally, the calendar year. As an exception, for the Legal Units (which are the reporting units) that operate by seasons or campaigns that comprise two separate years and have their data recorded in this way, their information refers to the season or campaign that ended in the survey's reference year.
Regarding employed staff, to reduce the statistical burden on respondent Legal Units, the SBS questionnaires exclusively request information about staff to 30 September of the reference year. Subsequently, for each Legal Unit, the aforementioned information is combined with the administrative registers on affiliation to Social Security to obtain the value of the average number of employed staff per year.
Data referring to the period: Annual Y: 2020
- 5.1Reference period
- 6Institutional mandate
- 6.1Legal acts and other agreements
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2021-2024, approved by Royal Decree 1110/2020, of 15 December, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2021-2024. (Statistics of the State Administration).
The Structural Business Statistics: Trade Sector is registered in the category of structural surveys in accordance with Regulation 295/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning structural business statistics, specifically in Annex III.
- 6.2Data sharing
The exchanges of information needed to elaborate statistics between the INE and the rest of the State statistical offices (Ministerial Departments, independent bodies and administrative bodies depending on the State General Administration), or between these offices and the Autonomic statistical offices, are regulated in the LFEP (Law of the Public Statistic Function). This law also regulates the mechanisms of statistical coordination, and concludes cooperation agreements between the different offices when necessary.
The Statistics Institute of Catalonia (IDESCAT) collaborates in the translation of the questionnaires.
To further reduce the statistical burden on respondent Legal Units, both the Tax Agency (AEAT) and the General Social Security Treasury (TGSS) collaborate in this operation, providing administrative files whose information, combined with SBS data for each Legal Unit, facilitates the reduction of the sample size and the removal of some of the questionnaires' variables.
- 6.1Legal acts and other agreements
- 7.1Confidentiality - policy
The Statistical Law No. 12/1989 specifies that the INE cannot publish, or make otherwise available, individual data or statistics that would enable the identification of data for any individual person or entity. Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society
- 7.2Confidentiality - data treatment
INE provides information on the protection of confidentiality at all stages of the statistical process: INE questionnaires for the operations in the national statistical plan include a legal clause protecting data under statistical confidentiality. Notices prior to data collection announcing a statistical operation notify respondents that data are subject to statistical confidentiality at all stages. For data processing, INE employees have available the INE data protection handbook, which specifies the steps that should be taken at each stage of processing to ensure reporting units' individual data are protected. The microdata files provided to users are anonymised.
In tailored requests the same process is carried out to preserve statistical secrecy.
Up to reference year 2015 inclusive, certain activities up to 4 digits of the CNAE-2009 were catalogued as CETO (Contribution to European Totals Only) when designing the samples for the given sectors. This measure, provided for in article 8.3 of Regulation 295/2008 concerning structural business statistics and applicable only to a limited number of less important activities over the total of each sector, enables the minimisation of increases in sample sizes. This means that the results for these activities are only representative for the preparation of aggregates at the European level and the commitment to not publish the aforementioned data at a national level and, therefore, nor at even a further disagregated level; autonomous or provincial.
The activity codes of the CNAE-2009 to 4 digits considered as CETO until reference year 2015 were:
- 4511 - 4519 - 4531 - 4532 –
- 4647 - 4648 - 4649 - 4665 - 4666 -
- 4741 - 4742 - 4743 - 4753 - 4754 - 4759 - 4763 - 4764 - 4765 - 4776 - 4777 - 4778 - 4781 - 4782 - 4789
From reference year 2016 inclusive, thanks to the reform and optimisation of the sample designs, all the activities to 4 digits of the CNAE-2009 in the scope of the study have their corresponding sample support, which made it possible to stop applying the CETO figure. Therefore, from the aforementioned year of publication of Final Results it is possible to offer, for all the activities not affected by confidential data, statistical results up to the level of 4 digits of the CNAE-2009.
- 7.1Confidentiality - policy
- 8Release policy
- 8.1Release calendar
The advance release calendar that shows the precise release dates for the coming year is disseminated in the last quarter of each year.
- 8.2Release calendar access
The calendar is disseminated on the INEs Internet website (Publications Calendar)
- 8.3User access
The data are released simultaneously according to the advance release calendar to all interested parties by issuing the press release. At the same time, the data are posted on the INE's Internet website (www.ine.es/en) almost immediately after the press release is issued. Also some predefined tailor-made requests are sent to registered users. Some users could receive partial information under embargo as it is publicly described in the European Statistics Code of Practice
- 8.1Release calendar
- 9Frequency of dissemination
- 9.1Frequency of dissemination
This statistic is released annually.
- 9.1Frequency of dissemination
- 10Accessibility and clarity
- 10.1News release
The results of the statistical operations are normally disseminated by using press releases that can be accessed via both the corresponding menu and the Press Releases Section in the web
The survey results are released on the INE website (https://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/en/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736176902&menu=ultiDatos&idp=1254735576799) and some results are covered in publications such as the Anuario Estadistico (Statistical Yearbook), Cifras INE (INE Figures), etc.
- 10.3On-line database
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.
On INEBase, in the Services section, in Trade, select the Structural Business Statistics: Trade Sector. There, the Results can be explored in the menu on the left.
Access to tables and time series in the INEbase can be found at:
Number of consultations of data tables: AC1=50,788 consultations in 2021.
- 10.4Micro-data access
A lot of statistical operations disseminate public domain anonymized files, available free of charge for downloading in the INE website Microdata Section
No microdata file is provided for this statistical operation. Microdata files are only provided to other statistical bodies (Statistical Institutes of Autonomous Communities) that also have an obligation to maintain statistical secrecy.
The data that are released annually aim to offer basic, and relevant, information on the survey's main results, which enables different users' requirements for information to be met.
Results are provided both at a national level, for the different disaggregations by activity, and at the level of Autonomous Communities according to the location of the premises.
It is helpful to note that the year-to-year variations obtained from the results of this survey may be due, on some occasions (to a greater or lesser degree), to changes in the structure of the corresponding reference populations (for example, changes in activity in certain Enterprises that consequently mean that they are classified in a different activity sector to the previous year, etc.), so, not necessarily in all cases, the changes mentioned can be directly associated with a change (increase or decrease), of the same magnitude, in the manufacturing activity of the set of businesses of a certain sector or sub-population.
Finally, it must be highlighted that the release of this statistic is not exclusively limited to the tables offered here or covered in the publication. Safeguarding the restrictions derived from statistical secrecy or from the fact that the survey is sample-based, the existing computing procedures allow for tailored requests for aggregated data to be dealt with, which may be provided in the medium or format chosen by the user.
The request is made through the Information Area:
- 10.6Documentation on methodology
A detailed description can be found at:
- 10.7Quality documentation
On the basis of Regulation 275/2010 of the Commission and 295/2008 of the European Parliament and Council, the European Commission (Eurostat) evaluates the quality of the transferred data and publishes reports on the quality of European statistics. For this reason, each country provides information on the variation coefficients of the characteristics that are covered in this and at the requested level of disaggregation, as well as data on non-responses. The quality report contains quantitative and qualitative information. Eurostat provides information on the main quantitative indicators, calculated from the data provided by Member States.
This standardised methodological report contains, in sections 10.6 to 17, the elements of what constitutes the "User-oriented quality report" for this operation.
- 10.1News release
- 11Quality management
- 11.1Quality assurance
Quality assurance framework for the INE statistics is based on the ESSCoP, the European Statistics Code of Practice made by EUROSTAT. The ESSCoP is made up of 16 principles, gathered in three areas: Institutional Environment, Processes and Products. Each principle is associated with some indicators which make possible to measure it. In order to evaluate quality, EUROSTAT provides different tools: the indicators mentioned above, Self-assessment based on the DESAP model, peer review, user satisfaction surveys and other proceedings for evaluation.
The process of preparing the statistic has established controls to detect and correct errors with the aim of guaranteeing the statistical quality.
The collection of data in Collection Units has programmed for serious and second-tier errors, so data can be filtered as they are entered by the user. Throughout the collection and filtering of data, measures are adopted to reduce non-response.
Finally, once the data arrives at the Central Services, the data are subjected to additional micro- and macro-filtration controls, as well as comparison against other short-term Trade Sector surveys and with information from administrative sources, which enable a final product of sufficient quality to be guaranteed.
- 11.2Quality assessment
Commission Regulation 275/2010 establishes procedures for the evaluation of the series of data sent by the different Member States for the statistics of Annexes I to IX of SBS Regulation (EC) No 295/2008, according to the quality criteria outlined in article 12, section 1 of Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council, namely: relevance, accuracy, timeliness, punctuality, accessibility, clarity, comparability and coherence.
The statistic can be considered to be of high quality since a sufficiently representative sample is obtained from the target population on a national level and on the Autonomous Community level for each stratum of activity and enterprise size. Furthermore, the data are subjected to adjustment criteria and year-to-year checks, as well as comparisons with administrative sources and other statistical operations.
- 11.1Quality assurance
- 12.1User needs
Users of the statistic include:
- Various INE statistical operations, such as the National Accounts, Inward FATS, Short-Term Survey on the Retail Trade Index, etc.
- Ministries and other public agencies.
- Territorial administrations (Autonomous Communities, City Councils...).
- Businesses and institutions.
- Researchers and universities.
- Individuals and, generally, anyone interested in the structural analysis of the trade sector.
- 12.2User satisfaction
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016 and 2019 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...
On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)
In the quality section of the INE website, there are different "User Satisfaction Surveys" where the group (Services) in which this statistical operation is classified is evaluated. These results can give an idea of the opinion of users regarding this operation.
The statistic complies with the information requirements according to Regulation (EC) No 295/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning structural business statistics and according to Decision No 1297/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council on a Programme for the Modernisation of European Enterprise and Trade Statistics (MEETS).
It appears in the 2021-2024 National Statistics Plan in the section of structural information for the trade sector and in the EU Statistics Programme: Annual Enterprise Statistics.
Rate of completeness of the data: R1=100%
- 12.1User needs
- 13Accuracy and reliability
- 13.1Overall accuracy
The sample design intends to reduce sampling errors and the different survey processes are aimed at eliminating or reducing its errors as much as possible, both in the collection stage (rate of response and filtering control) and in the later stages of editing and imputation.
The collection process, coverage control, filtering of errors and imputation of a non-response allows a high level of reliability to be obtained for this statistic.
- 13.2Sampling error
Sampling errors of the main variables at different levels of disaggregation are calculated.
The tables published include information detailed by activities on the sampling errors of the main variables.
Sampling error for Turnover variable: A1=0.33%
- 13.3Non-sampling error
Throughout the statistical process a non-sampling error control is carried out. Specific information on the non-response rate is also available.
Over-coverage rate: A2=6.2%
Non-response rate by unit: A4=20.1%
- By size according to the number of employees: Up to 9: 23.9% From 10 to 49: 13.2% 50 or more: 11.4%
Tasa de imputación: A7=17.6%
- 13.1Overall accuracy
- 14Timeliness and punctuality
Regulation No 295/2008 concerning Structural Business Statistics (SBS) requires results to be available within 18 months after the end of the reference period. This target is complied with, with the statistic's Final Data is being published before the end of this deadline.
Opportunity final results: TP2 = t+17 months+ 9 days
The data is disseminated according to the Structural Statistics availability calendar that INE prepares and publishes annually.
- 15Coherence and Comparability
- 15.1Comparability - geographical
The availability of a methodology, a common design and collection, filtering, editing and elevation process throughout the geographic area guarantees the comparability of results between the different Autonomous Communities.
On the other hand, the methodological adaptation to the SBS Regulation makes it possible to compare with the rest of the European Union countries that release the same information for their respective sectors.
- 15.2Comparability - over time
In reference year 2008, a logical gap occurred in the series, as a consequence of the entry into force of the National Classification of Economic Activities (CNAE-2009).
In reference year 2015, the “Integration Project of the Structural Economic Surveys" started, including the implementation of a reformed common questionnaire for the industry, trade and services sectors, as well as a homogeneous dissemination plan for the three sectors. Regarding the Trade Sector, this new dissemination plan allows for more detailed statistical results to be obtained, without causing changes in the methodology that was being applied previously.In reference year 2016, the second year of the 'Integration project' various methodological improvements were applied relating to the treatment of enterprises that cause the target population to rise or fall in the reference year, as well as the imputation of non-response. On the other hand, the estimate of employment variables was improved using administrative sources. All this has had a certain impact on the variables studied that is explained and quantified in the document "Measurement of the effect of methodological changes on the Structural Business Statistics 2016", available alongside the published data. For this reason, the results obtained for 2016 are not strictly comparable with those of other years as the evolution of the variables are not only due to possible real changes made in this period, but also to the effects of the methodological changes on the estimation of these variables.
For the 2018 reference year, the new practical application of the statistical concept of 'Enterprise' is implemented. This change affects the statistical results of the SBS, and its distribution by activities and sizes. So that users can compare the SBS data under the traditional approach (based on separate Legal Units) and the new approach (based on Statistical Enterprises), for the 2018 reference year the INE released both versions of the statistical results
Length of the comparable time series under the Statistical Enterprises approach: CC2=3
- 15.3Coherence - cross domain
The use of a single national classification of economic activities allows for the possibility to compare information from the survey with other economic statistics such as, for example, short-term Services and Trade Sector statistics and the Central Business Register (Directorio Central de empresas DIRCE).
It is comparable on an international level, it covers the necessary information required by the various users of the statistic and it is a useful instrument for the National Accounts.
Furthermore, it serves as a framework for the updating of short-term indicators and for studying the transformations undergone in the sector.
- 15.4Coherence - internal
Coherence is a fundamental matter both in the planning of the survey's methodology and throughout its preparation. The coherence between variables is compared at all stages of the statistical process.
- 15.1Comparability - geographical
- 16Cost and burden
- 16.1Cost and burden
INE, conscious of the statistical burden on Legal Units, tries to apply certain methods to its questionnaires to reduce this burden as much as possible and, in all cases, it facilitates the completion of information required from respondents.
The following are some of the measures adopted in this operation to reduce the statistical burden:
Cooperation arrangements are established to take full advantage of the information available and to avoid unnecessary duplicate statistical operations. The sample size and breadth of the questionnaires are reduced to the bare minimum.
In the sample selection process, negative coordination methods are applied, i.e. minimum possible overlap (covering the survey objectives) between samples of surveys that coexist in the same period of time.
Use of different questionnaire models with different levels of simplification depending on the characteristics of each Legal Unit. Thus, small Legal Units usually fill out a questionnaire with fewer variables and breakdowns. All questionnaire models attempt to reduce the breadth of the questionnaires to the bare minimum.
The change made to the questionnaire for the Integration Project has meant a reduction of certain variables, such as some relating to employment, which will be estimated using administrative data from Social Security.
Internet completion is encouraged by electronic questionnaires with questions, flows and validations adapted to the respondent Legal Unit, which facilitates completion and improves the quality of data collected. Online questionnaire designs are designed in such a way that repeated contact with respondents can be avoided or at least reduced.
For the trade and services sectors, the UFAES project (Acronym for Utilización de Fuentes Administrativas para Encuestas Económicas: Use of Administrative Sources for Economic Surveys) has been implemented since the year of Reference 2012, whereby approximately 16,000 sample units (M sample group) are estimated each year from administrative data, so the number of Legal Units required to fill out the questionnaires has been reduced. Until 2014, this reduction in the sample for direct collection was applied biennially to the service sector and, in the alternate years, to the trade sector. Since the implementation of the Integration Project of the Structural Business Statistics, with its consequent sample reformulation, it has been possible to apply the reduction annually to the two sectors without the need for alternation.
Additionally, since the reference year 2018 the number of sample units that not receiving a questionnaire (M’ sample group) has increased. This means that statistical information is obtained by combining proprietary administrative information and assignments based on data from similar units with data ('donors') or representative values for the group to which each unit to be assigned belongs. This strategy has allowed the total sample size to increase considerably without the number of questionnaires -and therefore, the burden on companies- increasing. It has been possible to meet the additional information needs derived from the new practical implementation of the 'Enterprise' concept without increasing the number of questionnaires.
The estimate of the budgetary appropriation necessary to finance this statistic, as provided for in the 2022 Annual Programme, is 2,053.28 thousand Euros.
- 16.1Cost and burden
- 17Data revision
- 17.1Data revision - policy
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).
This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow: routine revision- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-; more extensive revision- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and exceptional revision- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.
For the 2016 and 2017 reporting periods, the statistical results were published as Advance and Final.
Since the reference year 2018, due to the change implemented as a result of the Statistical enterprise, only the Final results are published.
- 17.2Data revision - practice
The Final Results are not subject to review.
- 17.1Data revision - policy
- 18Statistical processing
- 18.1Source data
The sampling frame is obtained from the Central Directory of Enterprises (DIRCE), which is updated once a year with administrative sources, mainly tax and Social Security, and with information from the statistical operations of the INE.
The DIRCE is an integrated information system at various levels where it stands out, from lowest to highest: establishment, Legal Unit, Statistical Enterprise and business group. For each of these levels, DIRCE contains information on the main economic activity, the number of employees and the turnover, variables that are used in the sample design, and on identification and location data, necessary for a correct collection of the data information.
Since the reference year 2018, the DIRCE includes the new level of the Statistical Enterprise, which is equal to the Legal Unit in the case of independent Legal Units or a set of Legal Units of a business group, or the entire business group (depending on it is determined by the Profiling methodology) for the Legal Units that are part of a business group.
SAMPLE DESIGN AND STRATIFICATION
A distinction is made between the sample design based on the sample of Legal Units (ULE) and that of the sample of Statistical Enterprises (EE). The first has been carried out regularly and uses stratified random sampling. In each stratum, a random sample is obtained, except the one formed by LUs with 50 or more employees, in which all form part of the sample. Other relevant units are also included exhaustively in the sample. The sample size is calculated by applying optimal allocation and the estimators are those of simple expansion, adjusted for highs, lows and changes in stratum.
Indirect sampling is used for the sample of Statistical Businesses (SB), in the sense that results are obtained by SB from the sample of ULEs. This is based on the methodology detailed by Lavallée and Labelle-Blanchet in their article: "Indirect Sampling applied to Skewed Population", Survey Methodology, June 2013, Vol 39, Statistics Canada.
Details on sample design, determination of exhaustive units, stratification, sample selection, estimators and calculation of sampling errors can be consulted in the document " Structural Business Statistics. Methodology" available on the INE website together with the statistical results of the operation.
- 18.2Frequency of data collection
The basic information is obtained annually from each Legal Unit, and comes from two sources:
- The questionnaires sent to the Legal Units of the selected sample.
- The administrative information, of tax origin for the economic variables and Social Security for the employment variables, available for all the Legal Units of each of the Statistical Enterprises in the sample.
For each reference year t, the collection of questionnaires and the collection of other information from administrative sources is organized as follows:
- Direct collection through questionnaires addressed to the sample Legal Units (collected in the field, under the IRIA system).
- First Wave, formed by a main sample. It takes place from April to September of year t+1.
- Second Wave, which is made up of a complementary sample whose collection takes place from October to December of year t + 1.
- Request and obtain the Social Security Affiliate File for the loading of Employment variables at the microdata level. (first quarter of year t + 1)
- Request and obtain files from the AEAT and other tax administrations. (second and third quarter of year t + 1)
- 18.3Data collection
Completion of the questionnaire over the internet is promoted as much as possible and over 90% of the total questionnaires collected were completed this way. In any case, respondents have other response channels available to them (fax, postal mail or telephone).
The collection units are also responsible for responding to telephone lines to resolve respondents' doubts, and for the recording and filtering of questionnaires. Errors and anomalous data are subject to revision and, if necessary, informants will be contacted again by telephone.
- 18.4Data validation
Data validation of the sample Legal Units
During the questionnaire collection stage, the first filtering and coding processes are carried out on them. Both the electronic questionnaires that respondents fill out on the Internet as well as the application of collection management, recording and filtration used by INE's Collection Units have systems programmed to detect errors in order to validate data as they are entered by the user. It distinguishes between serious errors (which must be corrected) and second-tier anomalies (which, after confirmation, must be justified). Furthermore, during the collection and filtering of data, measures are also adopted to reduce non-responses.
The records made by the Collection Units form and feed into, at least fortnightly, the complete recorded files on which the later stages of joint information processing are carried out. These files are processed in the Central Services, where new information coverage control is carried out to guarantee the completeness of the recorded data, to detect duplicates and coverage errors and, at the same time, to carry out an initial assessment of the quality of the variables collected.
- 18.5Data compilation
A distinction is made between the treatment used for the Legal Units and the additional treatment implemented in 2018 for the Statistical Enterprises.
A. Compilation of the information of the sample Legal Units
As the collection progresses and the complete recording files are formed, the data is subjected to additional micro-filtration controls at Central Services focused, selectively, on the detection and filtering of errors and inconsistencies in the variables of each record, as well as the filtering and imputation of content errors. Depending on the characteristics of each type of error, automatic imputation procedures are used in certain cases. Likewise, systematic errors detected in Previously studies and analyses on recorded data are corrected.
Since reference year 2016 various methodological improvements have been applied to the Structural Business Statistics, included in the ‘Integration Project of the Structural Economic Surveys’. The aforementioned improvements are related to the treatment of Legal Units that cause the target population to rise or fall in the reference year, as well as the imputation of non-response. On the other hand, the estimation of employment variables has been improved by using administrative sources.
- The non-response (Legal Units considered to be active for which it was not possible to get a duly completed questionnaire) is subject to automatic imputation, which allows it to be borne in mind as an effective sample. This implies a relevant methodological change with respect to that which was being done until 2015: only very relevant Legal Units with non-response were imputed; the rest were not considered an effective sample and therefore contributed to increasing the scale of the elevation factors, as they were Legal Units that were collected in the stratum that represented them.
Through internal methodological studies, it was concluded that re-weighting non-response led to a certain overestimation of monetary variables, given that a relevant part of non-response is only active during part of the reference year. For this reason, it was decided to replace this re-weighting with the application of different imputation techniques, based on administrative data. The minimum aim of these imputations was that both the turnover and the number of employees correspond to the Legal Units's own value and during the year in question. The rest of the variables are imputed, using highly correlated administrative information, conditional on the two variables, which guarantees the global coherence of the imputed records.
- With regards to the employment variables, their estimation has been improved for each Legal Unit by combining the information collected in the questionnaires with data from administrative sources. More details can be found in the document "Structural Business Statistics. Industrial Sector, Trade Sector, Services Sector Methodology" available on the INE website next to the statistical results.
For the effective sample (which from 2016 includes the non-response, as explained above), the elevation factors para Unidades Legales are calculated to determine the estimates of the different variables. The last stage, before the tabulation and release of the results, is obtaining analysis tables through macro-filtration techniques to eliminate the errors and inconsistencies detected. The data are also subjected to comparisons with other statistics (eg, other short-term INE surveys on the sectors studied) and with information from administrative sources, in order to guarantee a final product of sufficient quality.
B. Compilation of information from Statistical Enterprises
For the elaboration of the EEE under the 'Statistical Enterprise' approach, a method has been developed that is based on the following steps, each of which is described in more detail in the EEE Methodology document available on the INE website together to the statistical results of the operation.
- Delineation of the Statistical Enterprises that operate in business groups through the so-called Profiling methodology and classification of the Legal Units that compose them (see details in section 2.3 of the EEE Methodology )
- Adequacy of the sample design and the information collection phase (see details in sections 4 and 6 of the EEE Methodology ).
- Aggregation of the Legal Units that make up each Sample Statistical Enterprise and study of the combinations of typologies of said Legal Units (see details in section 7.3.1 of the EEE Methodology ).
- Consolidation for sample Statistical Enterprises formed by more than one Legal Unit and containing relationships between them. For these enterprises, the flows between their Legal Units are identified to proceed with the cancellation of intra-enterprise transactions (see details in section 7.3.2 of the SBS Methodology ).
- Construction of the complete statistics, based on Statistical Enterprises, whether they are independent Legal Units or Enterprises of business groups (see details in section 7.3.3 of the EEE Methodology ).
The essential idea is that if the Legal Units of a Statistical Enterprise serve, exclusively or mainly, other Legal Units of the same Enterprise (for example, because they sell products under a vertical integration of the production process or provide services as an auxiliary relationship) , said servile Legal Units must be combined with the others to which they support to form the authentic statistical unit "Enterprise", therefore having to combine and consolidate the corresponding variables.
Not applicable as it is not necessary to seasonally adjust the data.
- 18.1Source data