- Methods and Projects
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# Standardised Methodological Report

# Life Tables

- 1Contact
- 1.1Contact organisation
National Statistics Institute of Spain

- 1.5Contact mail address
Avenida de Manoteras 50-52 - 28050 Madrid

- 1.1Contact organisation
- 2Metadata update
- 2.1Metadata last certified
27/11/2023
- 2.2Metadata last posted
22/11/2023
- 2.3Metadata last update
27/11/2023

- 2.1Metadata last certified
- 3Statistical presentation
- 3.1Data description
A mortality table is composed of a set of series or biometric functions by age, such as the risk of death, survivors and life expectancy, which are calculated with the

**primary objective**of measuring the incidence of mortality in a population regardless of the age structure of that population, thus allowing the evolution, in time and space, of the incidence of this demographic phenomenon to be analysed.The biometric functions are calculated for the resident population in Spain and in different territorial scopes, from the observed flows of deaths and the corresponding population numbers.

- 3.2Classification system
- Clasificaciones utilizadas
The series of mortality tables are calculated by sex, age and territorial scope.

The official administrative division of Autonomous Communities and Cities and Provinces is used to classify by territorial scope. Lists of autonomous communities and provinces are used according to INE standards.

- Clasificaciones utilizadas
- 3.3Sector coverage
The calculated mortality tables describe the behaviour regarding this demographic phenomenon of the population of each sex

**resident in Spain**, its Autonomous Communities and cities as well as its provinces. - 3.4Statistical concepts and definitions
- Average number of years lived during the last year of life series
The average number of years lived during the last year of life series, at each age x, is the average number of years lived at age x by those individuals from the initial cohort who died at said age.
- Life expectancy series at each exact age x
The life expectancy series, at each exact age x, is defined as the average number of years that an individual, aged x, belonging to the initial cohort, has left to live.
- Life tables
Life tables measure the incidence of this demographic phenomenon in a cohort, composed, in general, by 100,000 individuals, from its birth until its extinction, through the following series or biometric functions by age: survivors series, theoretical deaths series, average number of years lived during the last year of life series, stationary population series, specific mortality rate series, probability or risk of dying series, time still to live series, life expectancy series at the exact age x.
- Probabilities or risks of death series by age
The probabilities or risks of death series, at each age x, is defined as the probability that an individual of the initial cohort would die between the exact ages x and x + 1.
- Specific mortality rate series at age x
The specific mortality rate series, at each age x, is defined as the number of individuals from the initial cohort who die at said age, divided by the time that the individuals of said generation are exposed to the risk of death.
- Stationary population series at age x
The stationary population series, at each age x, is the average total time lived (measured in years) by those individuals of the initial generatio that has turned age x.
- Survivors series at the exact age x
The survivors series at the exact age x represents the number of individuals from the initial cohort who arrive alive at age x.
- Theoretical deaths at exact age x series
The theoretical deaths at exact age x series represents the number of deaths within the cohort which take place between two successive ages.
- Time still to live series at age x
The "Time still to live series" is defined as the total time to live the generation has, from x age to its dissappearance.

- Average number of years lived during the last year of life series
- 3.5Statistical unit
The purpose of the mortality tables is to measure the incidence of this demographic phenomenon in the population for which they are prepared.

Therefore, the statistical unit is the population resident in a given geographical area (Spain, Autonomous Community,...).

- 3.6Statistical population
The statistical information of the mortality tables is generated for the population, total and by sex, resident in Spain, in its Autonomous communities and cities and in its provinces.

- 3.7Reference area
Mortality tables are prepared for the population resident in Spain, its Autonomous communities and cities and its provinces.

- 3.8Time coverage
Annual data has been provided since 1975 with the same methodology throughout the series. With the exception that for mortality tables prior to 1991, the closing age is advanced 10 years in all cases.

- 3.9Base period
The calculation methodology used is the same for the annual series of results currently published. Except that for mortality tables prior to 1991, the closing age is advanced 10 years in all cases.

- 3.1Data description
- 4Unit of measure
- 4.1Unit of measure
Natural year

- 4.1Unit of measure
- 5Reference period
- 5.1Reference period
Calendar year.

Data referred to the period: Anual A: 2023

- 5.1Reference period
- 6Institutional mandate
- 6.1Legal acts and other agreements
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2021-2024, approved by Royal Decree 1110/2020, of 15 December, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2021-2024. (Statistics of the State Administration).

The preparation and dissemination of life tables is not harmonised at European or international level, in general. In particular, it is not governed by any European regulation. The European Commission, through its Statistical Office (EUROSTAT) prepares and publishes its own mortality tables for all Member States. The methodology and results of these are the exclusive responsibility of EUROSTAT, not generally coinciding with those prepared and published by each country.

- 6.2Data sharing
The exchanges of information needed to elaborate statistics between the INE and the rest of the State statistical offices (Ministerial Departments, independent bodies and administrative bodies depending on the State General Administration), or between these offices and the Autonomic statistical offices, are regulated in the LFEP (Law of the Public Statistic Function). This law also regulates the mechanisms of statistical coordination, and concludes cooperation agreements between the different offices when necessary.
..

- 6.1Legal acts and other agreements
- 7Confidentiality
- 7.1Confidentiality - policy
The Statistical Law No. 12/1989 specifies that the INE cannot publish, or make otherwise available, individual data or statistics that would enable the identification of data for any individual person or entity. Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society

- 7.2Confidentiality - data treatment
INE provides information on the protection of confidentiality at all stages of the statistical process: INE questionnaires for the operations in the national statistical plan include a legal clause protecting data under statistical confidentiality. Notices prior to data collection announcing a statistical operation notify respondents that data are subject to statistical confidentiality at all stages. For data processing, INE employees have available the INE data protection handbook, which specifies the steps that should be taken at each stage of processing to ensure reporting units' individual data are protected. The microdata files provided to users are anonymised.
No additional confidentiality measures have been adopted to those already indicated as usual in all INE operations.

- 7.1Confidentiality - policy
- 8Release policy
- 8.1Release calendar
The advance release calendar that shows the precise release dates for the coming year is disseminated in the last quarter of each year.

- 8.2Release calendar access
The calendar is disseminated on the INEs Internet website (Publications Calendar)

- 8.3User access
The data are released simultaneously according to the advance release calendar to all interested parties by issuing the press release. At the same time, the data are posted on the INE's Internet website (www.ine.es/en) almost immediately after the press release is issued. Also some predefined tailor-made requests are sent to registered users. Some users could receive partial information under embargo as it is publicly described in the European Statistics Code of Practice

- 8.1Release calendar
- 9Frequency of dissemination
- 9.1Frequency of dissemination
The results are disseminated annually in December of each year in such a way that in December of year t + 1, the definitive results corresponding to year t are published.

- 9.1Frequency of dissemination
- 10Accessibility and clarity
- 10.1News release
The results of the statistical operations are normally disseminated by using press releases that can be accessed via both the corresponding menu and the Press Releases Section in the web

- 10.2Publications
All information related to this operation can be accessed through:

- 10.3On-line database
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.

Access to tables and time series in INEbase within the section "Demography and population" on www.ine.es:

In 2022, the number of consultations to the operation results tables was 156,414 and in 2023, in the absence of the last quarter, the number of consultations to the results tables was AC2= 100,152.

- 10.4Micro-data access
A lot of statistical operations disseminate public domain anonymized files, available free of charge for downloading in the INE website Microdata Section
This is a synthesis statistic prepared from aggregated results from several statistical sources. Therefore, microdata of the statistic is not available.

- 10.5Other
This operation allows us to meet requests from users for tailored information that is not included in the results tables of the same, following a feasibility study by the INE. The request is made through the Information area at the following link:

- 10.6Documentation on methodology
The operation"s methodology can be consulted at:

__https://www.ine.es/en/metodologia/t20/t2020319a_en.pdf__ - 10.7Quality documentation
Sections 10.6 to 17.2 of this document are considered the user-oriented quality report for this operation.

- 10.1News release
- 11Quality management
- 11.1Quality assurance
Quality assurance framework for the INE statistics is based on the ESSCoP, the European Statistics Code of Practice made by EUROSTAT. The ESSCoP is made up of 16 principles, gathered in three areas: Institutional Environment, Processes and Products. Each principle is associated with some indicators which make possible to measure it. In order to evaluate quality, EUROSTAT provides different tools: the indicators mentioned above, Self-assessment based on the DESAP model, peer review, user satisfaction surveys and other proceedings for evaluation.

The quality is adequate, since the necessary starting data is available and the basic methodology used in the calculation is that adopted by all the countries that prepare mortality tables, the specific features of the latter being adjusted to the generally accepted demographic assumptions for the preparation of mortality tables.

Thus, the functions of the mortality tables are calculated from the deaths and population figures observed during a period, which is generally one year.

The first, coming from the Statistics of Deaths of the Natural Movement of the Population, are considered of good quality and with the necessary disaggregation (by provinces, sex and simple ages).

Regarding the population figures, given that until 2020 they are intercensal estimates that are calculated with the most recent information available on the flows of births, deaths and migrations between each pair of decennial censuses, it can be presumed that they constitute the best approximation to the population for which mortality tables are prepared. Furthermore, as of January 1, 2021, these are the populations obtained from the annual Censuses, therefore, the differences with reality will be very small.

Taking into account the above, in addition, the series of the resulting mortality tables are compared with those corresponding to previous periods, in order to detect possible inconsistencies that were the result of errors in the calculations.

- 11.2Quality assessment
The complete consistency of the results provided on population stocks and demographic events has been checked at all levels of disaggregation.

The Mortality Tables are a statistical synthesis operation using data from other operations. Therefore, it does not burden the user and allows a significant volume of demographic information to be obtained at a low cost.

- 11.1Quality assurance
- 12Relevance
- 12.1User needs
The mortality tables" primary objective is the analysis of this demographic phenomenon, which aside from own use by the INE (with the analyses and projections it carries out), external users may include the following:

- International agencies (Eurostat, United Nations...).

- Ministries and other public agencies.

- Territorial administrations (autonomous communities, city councils...).

- Companies and non-profit institutions.

- Researchers and universities.

- Individuals.

Each of these users has different needs depending on the destination and utility of the information they need.

- 12.2User satisfaction
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016 and 2019 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...

On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)

- 12.3Completeness
This operation meets the objectives set forth in the current National Statistics Plan.

Therefore, the rate of mandatory results available is 100% (R1=100).

- 12.1User needs
- 13Accuracy and reliability
- 13.1Overall accuracy
The functions of the mortality tables are calculated from the death and population figures observed over a period of time, which is usually one year.

This operation is prepared from the information provided by the statistics on demographic events occurring at any given time, so the accuracy of its results depends on the sources of information used.

- 13.2Sampling error
Not applicable to this statistical operation, as it is a summary statistic, prepared from other statistical sources, and not a sample survey.

- 13.3Non-sampling error
Given that this is a synthesis operation, based on the statistical treatment of data from registry sources, errors unrelated to the sampling of this statistical operation are fundamentally due to:

- Possible errors in recording data in the Death Bulletin collected in the Civil Registries of the entire national territory, from which the Death Statistics of the Natural Movement of the Population (MNP) are prepared.

- Possible errors in recording data in the Register, necessary to prepare the reference resident population figures (Intercensal Population Estimates, until 2020, and annual Censuses, from 2021).

- Possible errors of completeness and coherence of the variables used in the calculation of the indicators are controlled in the control and debugging processes of the operations.

However, the biometric functions that make up the mortality tables are subject to an exhaustive analysis of the time series of each of them, in order to avoid any error in their calculation.

Regarding the methodology used, it is the one adopted internationally and is sufficiently proven. The analysis of the results obtained, in comparison with those corresponding to previous dates, is carried out in order to detect errors in their preparation.

Therefore, the errors which can affect this statistical operation are considered to be minimal.

More information at:

- 13.1Overall accuracy
- 14Timeliness and punctuality
- 14.1Timeliness
The preparation and consequent dissemination of the mortality tables is carried out each time new definitive data on deaths from the Natural Population Movement (NPM) are available. Thus, both the NPM and the life tables are published 11 months after the end of the reference period (TP2=11 months).

- 14.2Punctuality
The dissemination of this operation takes place on the date established in the INE"s structural statistics calendar.

- 14.1Timeliness
- 15Coherence and Comparability
- 15.1Comparability - geographical
The results of the national, autonomous and provincial mortality tables are comparable.

Furthermore, the basic methodology applied makes the results comparable with those of other countries that also prepare mortality tables, provided that the specific characteristics of the procedure applied to calculate them are taken into account.

- 15.2Comparability - over time
The available results, which have been published since 1975, are comparable in time, since they are obtained from the same calculation methodology. Therefore, the number of comparable elements of the time series of all the mortality tables' biometric functions from their inception in 1975 until the last publication of definitive data in 2022 covers 48 annual periods (CC2=48).

In March 2016 the data series of the 1975-1990 mortality tables were published for the first time.

- 15.3Coherence - cross domain
The series of mortality tables calculated are those obtained by the different national and international statistical agencies and offices which undertake this task. Therefore, it can be said that they are comparable.

However, when making comparisons it is necessary to take into account the specific characteristics applied in obtaining the series.

Therefore, taking into account the specific procedures used, it can be said that the results of this operation are comparable with those obtained by Eurostat, by the Human Mortality Data Base, by the statistics offices of other countries and by the Autonomous Communities, etc. In any case, the knowledge of such methodologies allows the comparison of basic results such as life expectancy at birth, at retirement age, by educational level, etc.

- 15.4Coherence - internal
The results of the mortality tables are internally coherent, since they are calculated from the same death and population figures, disaggregated by provinces and Autonomous Communities and cities, using a common methodology.

- 15.1Comparability - geographical
- 16Cost and burden
- 16.1Cost and burden
This is a synthesis statistic, drawn from other sources. It does not require the collaboration of respondent units and neither does it generate data collection costs.

The estimate of the budgetary appropriation necessary to finance this statistical operation foreseen in the 2023 Annual Programme of the 2021-2024 National Statistics Plan is of 8.89 thousand euros.

- 16.1Cost and burden
- 17Data revision
- 17.1Data revision - policy
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).

This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow:

**routine revision**- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-;**more extensive revision**- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and**exceptional revision**- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.The INE has a Policy which regulates the basic aspects of the revision of statistical data, guaranteeing the transparency of the processes and the quality of the products. This policy is described in the document approved by the Board of Directors at the meeting held on March 13, 2015. The document is available in the "Quality and best practices" section of the INE website.

This general policy sets out the criteria to be followed for different types of revisions: routine - in cases of statistics which are regularly revised by their nature - ; major revisions, due to methodological changes or changes in baseline sources of statistics; and extraordinary revisions (for example, those due to an error in published statistics).

In the case of the Mortality Tables, the definitive data are prepared from the definitive data, both from the Statistics of the Natural Movement of the Population and from the resident population figures as of January 1 of each year that the INE uses as reference in all its statistical production, consisting of the intercensal population estimates until 2020 and the population figures from the annual Censuses since 2021, 11 months after the end of the reference period.

- 17.2Data revision - practice
In December 2015, an extraordinary revision of the biometric functions of the Mortality Tables took place, in order to incorporate the intercensal estimates of the 1971-2001 Population which were recalculated between 2014 and 2015, with the objective of having a continuous series of population figures that begins on January 1, 1971 and links with the last published period of the Population Figures statistic. Given that the series of Intercensal Population estimates published up to 2015 had been prepared according to diverse processes of smoothing by ages, they did not constitute a homogeneous series. On this same date, methodological changes were also applied to the closing age.

In March 2016, the data series of the 1975-1990 mortality tables were published for the first time.

In September 2017, small errors were corrected in the programming of the 1975-1990 and 1991-2015 mortality tables which affect: Average of years lived in the last year of life at the table"s closing age, Stationary population at all ages, Time to live at all ages and Life expectancy at all ages. In this last one, differences occur in the second and/or third decimal place. In addition, due to the corrections of persons aged 100 years and older in the Population Figures from 01/01/2016, the specific mortality rates for 2015 have been updated, exclusively affecting the age at which the table closes.

In December 2021, the 2016 mortality rate has been corrected for the closing age.

On the occasion of the new 2021 Population Census, published in December 2022, throughout the year 2023, the intercensal population series were calculated for the period 2012-2020, in order to obtain a continuous and unified series of population figures that it begins on January 1, 1970 and links to the first published period of the annual Population Censuses as of January 1, 2021 and subsequent ones.

In November 2023, the mortality tables for the period 2012-2020 are published, calculated on the population base of the new intercensals and annual censuses.

The calculation methodology applied is the same for the entire series from 1975 to the present, with the exception of the open age group established for the closing of the table which are:

For the period 1975-1990 :

- 90 years nationwide

- 85 years at autonomous and provincial level

- and 80 years at the level of the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla.

From 1991:

- 100 years nationwide

- 95 years at autonomous and provincial level

- and 90 years at the level of the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla.

- 17.1Data revision - policy
- 18Statistical processing
- 18.1Source data
This is a statistical synthesis operation, prepared from the definitive annual deaths classified by province, sex and age, the Death Statistics of the Natural Movement of the Population and the resident population figures as of January 1 of each year that the INE uses as a reference in all its statistical production, consisting of the intercensal population estimates until 2020 and the population figures from the annual Censuses since 2021.

- 18.2Frequency of data collection
The availability of definitive information for the processing of this operation"s data is annual, for which reason the mortality tables are calculated with the same periodicity.

- 18.3Data collection
Mortality tables constitute a synthesis operation.

The starting data for the calculation of the functions of the mortality tables include the figures of deaths by sex and age, from the Statistics of Deaths of the Natural Movement of the Population and the population figures equally classified, of the residents at 1 January of each year that the INE uses as a reference in all its statistical production, consisting of the intercensal population estimates until 2020 and the population figures from the annual Censuses since 2021.

- 18.4Data validation
Since this is a synthesis operation, the validation of the baseline data is described in the corresponding statistical operations.

Thus, in the case of deaths, it is the Natural Movement of the Population and regarding the population figures used, it is the resident population on January 1 of each year that the INE uses as a reference throughout its statistical production, consisting of the intercensal population estimates until 2020 and the population figures from the annual Censuses since 2021.

Additionally, the results are analysed, comparing them with those obtained in previous periods in order to detect inconsistencies or errors in the application of the calculation method.

- 18.5Data compilation
No treatment is applied to the baseline data prior to their use in the calculation of the mortality table series.

These series are obtained according to the general model of demographic tables, with the procedure for calculating some parameters being discretionary.

Thus, mortality rates, by sex and age, are calculated with deaths in a calendar year, unlike the widespread practice of calculating them by age and generation, or from the average of deaths observed over two or four years. This discretion does not imply a departure from general practice, but must be taken into account when using the results obtained.

- 18.6Adjustment
No adjustments are made to the baseline data, nor to the results obtained in this statistical operation.

- 18.1Source data
- 19Comment
- 19.1Comment

- 19.1Comment