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Employment of persons with disabilities (EPD):
Periodic annual operation whose objective is to investigate the situation with respect to the labour market of the group of persons with disabilities aged between 16 and 64 years old.
In particular, it is a question of estimating the number of persons with disabilities employed, unemployed and inactive, disaggregated by sex and impairment.
In addition, complementary objectives are derived such as:
In 1991, IMSERSO implemented a new form of classification of impairments, adapting to the information demanded and to the contents of the evaluation reports. The objective is to record in the State Database of Persons with Disabilities (BEPD) the impairments that gave rise to the disability (impairment codes). The impairment codes used are specified in the EPD methodological manual (https://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/en/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736055502&menu=metodologia&idp=1254735976595). The following groupings of disability typology according to impairment are considered:
DEGREE OF DISABILITY
The population is divided into two categories according to the percentage of degree of disability:
- Less than 33%
- 33% and more
Derived from the EAPS definitions, for EPD the working age population (16 to 64 years) is classified in:
- Economically active persons
- Salaried employed persons
- first-time job seekers
- who have worked before
Prior to 2011, results are provided according to NCO-94. As of 2011 it is codified according to NCO- 11.
The activity sectors based on CNAE-09 are considered:
EDUCATION (level of studies)
The following categories based on CNED -2014 are considered:
Population coverage: Persons aged between 16 and 64 and residents in households (excluding collective dwellings)
Coverage by degree of disability: Degree greater than or equal to 33% and similar (according to Royal Legislative Decree 1/2013).
The coverage by impairment, branches of activity, occupation and level of studies is complete.
People, from 16 to 64 years old, with disabilities and the households of which they are members.
The population scope of the study is the group of persons from 16 to 64 years old with disability (degree of disability of 33% or greater and similar) who reside in main family dwellings.
Therefore, collective households are not included, although people who live in a collective household with a link to a private household, are considered part of the statistical population.
The entire national territory is investigated, disaggregated at the Autonomous Community level.
The fact that disability is an atypical phenomenon means that the size of the available sub-sample of persons with disabilities is insufficient to provide independent data for the Autonomous Cities. For this reason, the information relating to Ceuta and Melilla is included together with the Autonomous Community of AndalucÃa.
The statistics are carried out on an annual basis.
Each year (a) data are published with reference to the previous year (a-1).
It is carried out from the year 2010 and has reference data from the year 2008.
In 2008 the statistics began as a pilot project. Given the quality and viability of the results obtained, from this moment on it was established as a continuous statistic with an annual periodicity.
The published data are presented in absolute values and are measured in thousands (households or persons).
Data are also published in percentages and rates.
The reference period of the data obtained is annual.
Data referred to the period: Anual A: 2021
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2021-2024, approved by Royal Decree 1110/2020, of 15 December, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2021-2024. (Statistics of the State Administration).
There is a collaboration agreement between the INE, the Ministry of Health, Social Policy and Equality, the Spanish Committee of Representatives of People with Disabilities (CERMI), the ONCE Foundation, and the Institute for the Elderly and Social Services (IMSERSO) to carry out the study called Employment of People with Disabilities.
The agreement is renewed annually and there is a Joint Agreement Monitoring Committee made up of one representative from each of the collaborating institutions.
The information relating to disability is obtained from administrative records from IMSERSO and is completed with records from the General Treasury of Social Security (GTSS), the National Social Security Institute and the System for Autonomy and Care for Dependent Persons.
The Statistical Law No. 12/1989 specifies that the INE cannot publish, or make otherwise available, individual data or statistics that would enable the identification of data for any individual person or entity. Regulation (EC) No 223/2009 on European statistics stipulates the need to establish common principles and guidelines ensuring the confidentiality of data used for the production of European statistics and the access to those confidential data with due account for technical developments and the requirements of users in a democratic society
The procedures for archiving and transmission of files follow the INE standards and their use is restricted to personnel in the area.
Direct identification data are not stored together with the statistical information itself.
Aggregate data meets confidentiality restrictions.
Microdata files provided to users are anonymised.
The advance release calendar that shows the precise release dates for the coming year is disseminated in the last quarter of each year.
The calendar is disseminated on the INEs Internet website (Publications Calendar)
The data are released simultaneously according to the advance release calendar to all interested parties by issuing the press release. At the same time, the data are posted on the INE's Internet website (www.ine.es/en) almost immediately after the press release is issued. Also some predefined tailor-made requests are sent to registered users. Some users could receive partial information under embargo as it is publicly described in the European Statistics Code of Practice
The survey is disseminated annually.
The results of the statistical operations are normally disseminated by using press releases that can be accessed via both the corresponding menu and the Press Releases Section in the web
The diffusion of the information is carried out by means of a press release in which the main data are discussed.
The reference to this press release can be found at:
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.
The tables can be accessed in INEbase in the section Society/Labour Market, through the following link:
Due to the nature of the operation and the discrete sample size, it is not foreseen to provide microdata, since its diffusion would compromise the statistical secret.
It is possible to request customised information from the INE User Service Area. Limitations on confidentiality or accuracy are taken into account when processing such requests.
A detailed description is available at:
Sections 10.7 through 17 of this document collect user-oriented quality information for this operation.
Quality assurance framework for the INE statistics is based on the ESSCoP, the European Statistics Code of Practice made by EUROSTAT. The ESSCoP is made up of 16 principles, gathered in three areas: Institutional Environment, Processes and Products. Each principle is associated with some indicators which make possible to measure it. In order to evaluate quality, EUROSTAT provides different tools: the indicators mentioned above, Self-assessment based on the DESAP model, peer review, user satisfaction surveys and other proceedings for evaluation.
- The quality of the information from the EAPS is backed up by the quality procedures applied to this statistic.
- The quality of the information coming from administrative registers is backed up by the management of the registries themselves.
- The quality of the EPD is guaranteed through the quality of the crosses carried out and through the consistency between the crossed data sources. For this, it is essential to use data from the Municipal Register (PADRON).
In section 18.1 of this report, reference is made to the quality control procedure applied to the information crossings carried out to obtain this statistic.
The main source of this statistical operation is the Economically Active Population Survey (EAPS). This statistic is a high quality product. Its sample size allows to offer indicators up to the regional level.
The use of administrative sources to obtain the data decreases the cost of the statistical operation without affecting their accuracy. In addition, to ensure such accuracy, the data go through validation and consistency checks between the variables used, which ensures that the accuracy and reliability of the final data is very high.
The group of people with disabilities has been an axis of priority action in the social policies developed in recent years to achieve the labour integration of these people.
In Spain, since the approval of the Law for the Social Integration of the Disabled (LISMI) in 1982, the idea has been consolidated that achieving full integration into society entails achieving integration into the labour market.
The so-called "Global Action Strategy for the Employment of Persons with Disabilities 2008-2012" diagnoses low labour participation as the greatest problem of this group. In addition, it specifies a series of guidelines that, explicitly, aim to tackle the identified causes of low work activity.
In this context, the statistic "Employment of Persons with Disabilities" (EPD), developed by the INE since 2010, stands as the first continuous source of relevant information on the situation of persons with disabilities within the labour market.
The main users of the EPD statistics are:
- D.G. for Disability Support Policies
- Spanish Committee of Representatives of Persons with Disabilities (CERMI)
- ONCE Foundation
All of them need to have data on the labour force (employed, unemployed) and the population outside the labour market (inactive) within the group of persons with disabilities in order to carry out appropriate social measures.
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013, 2016 and 2019 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...
On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)
The specific needs of the users mentioned have been raised in the Agreement Monitoring Committee and have been met to date to the extent that the sample sizes have allowed.
The needs for information and coverage are raised at periodic meetings of this Committee and are stipulated in the annual agreements.
After the first edition of "The Employment of Persons with Disabilities" in which the requirements initially proposed by the Monitoring Committee had been achieved, the Committee expanded them by suggesting new information crossings that have been successfully carried out.
In 2013, the Spanish Committee of Representatives of People with Disabilities (CERMI) awarded the INE's labour statistics operations.
The jury of the CERMI awards, in its 12th edition, decided to award the prize in the category of Social and Scientific Research to the INE's annual operations on employment and salaries of people with disabilities, for its promotion of the cross-sectoral approach of disabilities in the official statistics, following the mandates of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
The EPD statistics have so far covered all the needs raised at the national level.
But given that disability is an atypical phenomenon and that the information base is supported by the EAPS, which was designed for purposes other than disability, the sample size obtained is limited and makes it impossible to perform a detailed exploitation at the regional level.
The data available for Autonomous Communities are limited to the variables prevalence, and economically active and inactive persons.
The rate of available mandatory statistical results for the EPD is R1=100%.
The errors presented in the statistical process carried out for the Employment of Persons with Disabilities (EPD) differ from those usually raised in the general case of surveys.
Given that the EPD is carried out by crossing the data from the Economically Active Population Survey (EAPS) with the State Database of Persons with Disabilities (BEPD), its accuracy depends:
- The accuracy of the EAPS
- Coverage and identification errors of the BEPD
The Jackknife indirect method is used to calculate the sampling errors of the main characteristics investigated. The Jackknife technique was adjusted to save the added complexity of the calibration used for the EPD (calibrate the population variables used in the EAPS, to the BEPD and to the results published by the EAPS).
In 2019, the variation coefficient of employed persons with disabilities was A1(employed persons) = 1.87%.
To consult the sampling errors go to:
For more details on calculating estimators and sampling errors go to: https://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/en/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736055502&menu=metodologia&idp=1254735976595
Non-sampling errors inherent to the EPD statistics (excluding those produced by the conduct of the Economically Active Population Survey, essential information base for the creation of the EPD) are the following:
- Lack of identifiers in the EAPS
- Lack of identifiers in the BEPD
- The presence of duplicates in the BEPD
- The presence of deceased persons in the BEPD
To control coverage errors in the BEPD:
- The BEPD is crossed with the Death Register (of the VS) to eliminate deceased persons
- Duplicates are checked in the BEPD (people assessed throughout their lives in different provinces appear registered several times)
- The BEPD is crossed with a directory of centres to eliminate people living in collective housing.
To control identification errors of the BEPD:
- The identifiers of the BEPD are normalised
- BEPD data is crossed with the Municipal Register (PADRON)
- EAPS identifiers are reviewed in order to optimise their crossing with the BEPD
- A triple process of linking the BEPD with the EAPS is carried out through several identification variables
- Persons with disabilities detected through the crossing of the EAPS with the GTSS are incorporated into the EPD statistics for having a degree of disability (variable registered in the GTSS) greater than or equal to 33%.
The statistics data will be published at the end of the year following the reference year of the information, i.e. within TP2 = 12 months
The publication has been released on the date announced in the publication calendar. The deadline for the dissemination of results is set in the collaboration agreement.
It should be borne in mind that the concept of disability used is restricted to legal terminology, so the possibility of comparisons of this statistic with any other survey on disability should be made under this premise.
At European level there is no comparison since it is a pioneering project that integrates labour market data and disability.
There are comparable disability data at European level in the EAPS modules, but the definitions used in these modules are not equivalent to those of the EPD.
The information provided is restricted on a regional level, since the presence of disability in the population is an atypical phenomenon. Therefore, the sample size of the EAPS sub-sample of persons with disabilities of working age obtained for the Autonomous Communities (AACC) limits the exploitation of results therein.
Royal Legislative Decree 1/2013, of 29 November, published on 3 December 2013, approving the Revised Text of the "General Law on Rights of Persons with Disabilities and their Social Inclusion" establishes that Social Security pensioners who have a recognised permanent disability pension in the degree of total, absolute or great disability, and civil service pensioners who have a recognised retirement pension or retirement pension due to permanent disability for service or uselessness shall be considered to have a disability equal to or greater than 33%.
As a consequence of this Royal Decree, since 2015 the population scope of The Employment of Persons with Disabilities includes this group. This change implies a rupture in the series of data of The Employment of Persons with Disabilities, and therefore the data already published for 2014 have been recalculated, including this new group, in order to provide a measure of the change. Therefore the number of comparable elements is CC2 = 6 years.
Although the definition of disability analysed is different, the results provided by the EPD are consistent with the results on activity derived from the Survey on Disability, Personal Autonomy and Dependency Situations 2008 (EDAD-2008). Likewise, the regional distribution of persons with a disability certificate is coherent between both sources.
In order to guarantee the consistency of the data provided, the file resulting from the crossing of the EAPS with the BEPD is calibrated through the CALMAR procedure.
In order to calibrate the original EAPS elevation factors, the calibration techniques are applied in the same way as is usual in the quarterly EAPS, in such a way as to guarantee consistency with the INE population figures.
In addition, in order to ensure the consistency of the data with the EAPS information published for the data reference year, the results published by the EAPS for the data reference period are calibrated, specifically, the number of employed, unemployed and inactive men and women between the ages of 16 and 64 is matched.
In order to ensure the consistency of the data with the population with disability registered in the BEPD, the totals of the BEPD are calibrated by sex, age groups, impairment groups and degree of disability.
And, to ensure the consistency of the data with the group of Social Security pensioners with permanent disability pension in the degree of total, absolute or great disability, and civil service pensioners who have a recognised retirement pension or retirement pension due to permanent disability for service or uselessness, the totals of this group are calibrated differentiating by sex.
Consistency is a fundamental question both in the EAPS methodology approach and in all its preparation process.
The consistency between the variables coming from the different administrative registers is contrasted in all the phases of the statistical process. Specifically, it should be pointed out that:
- In order to ensure consistency between the EAPS population and the BEPD, persons residing in collective establishments are removed from the BEPD.
- In order to ensure consistency between the variables on sheltered employment from the GTSS, a detailed analysis is carried out of the employment status described in the EAPS for each person, in the reference week, as opposed to the different employment status that appear in the Social Security registration records.
The estimated budget appropriation necessary to finance this operation foreseen in the 2020 annual programme is 68.99 thousand euros.
The burden on the respondents is nil as the information comes from administrative sources.
"The Employment of People with Disabilities" is a model that uses low-cost administrative sources that employs efficient methods and provides periodical figures on an aspect that is the subject of social and labour policies.
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).
This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow: routine revision- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-; more extensive revision- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and exceptional revision- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.
The information published is final and therefore no revision of data is carried out.
The information published is final and therefore no revision of data is carried out.
This statistical operation uses the information derived from an integration of the statistical data provided by the Economically Active Population Survey (EAPS) with the administrative data registered in the State Database of Persons with Disabilities (BEPD) of IMSERSO.
It is completed with information on pensions, dependency and employment promotion measures from the Public Benefits Register of the INSS, the System for Autonomy and Care for Dependent Persons (SISAAD) of IMSERSO and the General Treasury of Social Security (GTSS), respectively.
First, the data from the EAPS (Economically Active Population Survey) are crossed with that of the BEPD (State Database of Persons with Disabilities).
Then, information from three other data sources is incorporated:
In order to guarantee the quality of the results, the following actions are carried out:
Completion of the disability population of the BEPD with poor identification through the incorporation of persons from the EAPS sample crossed with GTSS who have a degree of disability greater than or equal to 33%.
In this project there is no specific collection as such. It is not a survey, although it is based on EAPS data, which is collected quarterly.
The information from the BEPD is provided annually by IMSERSO.
Data on sheltered employment, benefits and dependency are provided by the General Treasury of Social Security, the National Institute of Social Security and IMSERSO, respectively, once a year.
This is a statistical operation that crosses data from the Economically Active Population Survey (EAPS) with administrative records, so there is no collection work.
The EAPS has the following personal data, which are collected in the interview: name, surname, sex, place and date of birth and place of residence of the family dwelling. Through them, the identification number that appears in the Municipal Register is assigned, using direct or probabilistic assignment techniques.
- Measure of similarity of name and surname (routine comparison of alphanumeric strings defined and implemented in the Area of Employment of Persons with Disabilities of the INE)
- Date of Birth Comparison Measure
- IPF similarity measure
The union of all of them provides admission/rejection criteria for the cross-checks carried out.
The data compilation process is carried out in the following phases:
1. The cross-checks are validated with each of the data files received with the quarterly EAPS files, in such a way that for each person in the EAPS there are the variables of the EAPS questionnaire plus the variables of disability, employment promotion measures and social protection coming from the administrative registers used.
3. The elevation factors are calibrated
4. With the 4 quarterly files with elevated data, the annual average is calculated for each variable considered.
5. The tables to be published are obtained with the annual results (calculated as annual average from the elevated quarterly results).
1. For the EPD, the factors deduced from the EAPS design are used, calibrated reproducing the exact procedure carried out in the Economically Active Population Survey:
The factors are calibrated, for each Autonomous Community, in such a way that the population is adjusted to:
2. Furthermore, additional calibration marginals are added to adjust the population to the BEPD totals and to the results published by the EAPS for the reference year:
ADDITIONAL MARGINALS EAPS RESULTS (for Autonomous Communities, population 16-64 years old):
Employed persons by sex
Unemployed persons by sex
Inactive persons by sex
ADDITIONAL MARGINALS BEPD (for Autonomous Communities, population aged 16-64)
Age groups (16-24, 25-44, 45-64)
Number of persons according to type of disability (9 groups)
Number of persons according to degree of disability (33%-44%, 45%-64%, 65%-74%, 75% and more)
3. Additional calibration marginals are added to adjust the population to the totals of pensioners who have a recognised permanent disability pension:
ADDITIONAL MARGINALS PERMANENT DISABILITY (for Autonomous Communities):
It should be noted that the EAPS variables that have not been calibrated do not coincide in their results with those obtained in the operation âEmployment of persons with disabilitiesâ, although they are consistent.
The entire factor adjustment process is carried out using the CALMAR calibration procedure
For interested parties, other information referring to the group of persons with disabilities is available at:
INE Figures Nov/2009. Overview of Disabilities in Spain: https://www.ine.es/revistas/cifraine/1009.pdf
SPD: The Wages of Persons with Disabilities: https://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/en/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736176911&menu=ultiDatos&idp=1254735976596
WLPD: Working Lifes of People with Disabilities:https://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/en/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736177069&menu=ultiDatos&idp=1254735976597
EPA 2002 Special Module: Persons with disabilities and their relationship with employment: https://www.ine.es/dynt3/inebase/index.htm?type=pcaxis&path=/t22/e308/meto_05/modulo/2002/&file=pcaxis
EPA 2011 Module. Health problems and their relationship with employment: https://www.ine.es/dynt3/inebase/index.htm?type=pcaxis&path=/t22/e308/meto_05/modulo/2011/&file=pcaxis