The statistics regarding R&D activities in the PNPI sector appeared with the objective of measuring the economic and human resources (inputs) intended for these activities so as to satisfy two purposes:
- Providing a tool for the management, planning, decision and control in terms of national science policies.
- Providing statistical institutions with the information they request, which is obtained in accordance with the international regulations that allow comparability among several countries.
Its methodology follows the recommendations proposed by OECD in the Frascati Manual (http://www.oecd.org/innovation/inno/frascatimanualproposedstandardpracticeforsurveysonresearchandexperimentaldevelopment6thedition.htm) which is one of the bases to better understand the role of science and technology. Moreover, it provides internationally accepted definitions and classifications of R&D.
Analysis units are grouped by sectors, whose content are largely based on the System of Spanish National Accounts, with the difference that the households have been grouped within the sector of Private Non-Profit Institutions.
Further information may be obtained in the methodology of these statistics: http://ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/es/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736176754&menu=metodologia&idp=1254735576669
It collects all PNPIs of the national territory.
The statistical unit is the Private Non-Profit Institution (PNPI).
PNIPs that carry out activities related to scientific research and technological development in any scientific field and are located in the national territory.
It covers the entire national territory.
These statistics are carried out annually.
Results are available from reference year 1973.
The Statistics regarding R&D Activities in the PNIP sector has results about R&D activities (including occasional R&D) from reference year 2002, being 2001 the link year. Due to the revision of the 2002 Frascati Manual, the field covered by this sector has decreased noticeably.
Economic data are provided in thousand euros.
R&D personnel data are provided in headcount and in full-time equivalence.
The main reference period of these statistics is the year immediately prior to the year in which the data is collected. For the expenditure characteristic, the reference period is the natural year. In terms of personnel, in order to determine the number of persons who work in R&D, both the annual average and the full-time equivalent of the personnel who carry out R&D activities (persons/year) are used.
Data referred to the period: Anual A: 2017
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2017-2020, approved by Royal Decree 410/2016, of 31 October, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2017-2020. (Statistics of the State Administration).
"European Parliament and Council Decision no. 1608/2003/EC, of 22 July 2003, relating to the production and development of community statistics on science and technology" http://www.ine.es/normativa/leyes/UE/minine.htm#30059
It is carried out with the collaboration of the Autonomous Communities.
The questionnaire sent to the collaborating units notifies that "The personal information obtained by the statistical services, both directly from the respondents and from administrative sources, will be subject to protection and are covered by statistical secrecy (Article. 13.1 of the Law on Public Statistical Function of 9 May 1989, (LFEP)). All statistical personnel has the obligation of preserving statistical secrecy (art. 17.1 of LFEP)”
Data is disseminated annually.
The results of these statistics are disseminated through the INE website and some results are collected in publications such as the Annual Yearbook, INE Figures, etc.
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.
The following link allows access to the online database
The microdata for these statistics is not available.
It is possible to request customised information through the INE User Information Area. When processing these requests, confidentiality limitations are taken into account.
A detailed description is available in:
Based on Regulation n° 995/2012, the European Commission (Eurostat) assesses the quality of the transmitted data and publishes reports on the quality of European statistics. To do so, each country provides a quality report within the next 20 months after the end of the year.
Fields 10.7 to 17 of this document are the quality report addressed to the users of this operation.
Quality assurance framework for the INE statistics is based on the ESSCoP, the European Statistics Code of Practice made by EUROSTAT. The ESSCoP is made up of 16 principles, gathered in three areas: Institutional Environment, Processes and Products. Each principle is associated with some indicators which make possible to measure it. In order to evaluate quality, EUROSTAT provides different tools: the indicators mentioned above, Self-assessment based on the DESAP model, peer review, user satisfaction surveys and other proceedings for evaluation.
To guarantee good-quality information, the information received is treated following the steps listed next:
- Manual control and filtering of the questionnaires by the unit responsible for these statistics during the information collection stage, in order to recover the possible lack of data or correct questionnaire errors before they are recorded.
- Interactive recording with filtering and correction of errors in the information obtained by the unit responsible for these statistics.
- Control of the information received by the unit responsible for these statistics.
- Coverage control and treatment of identification errors.
- Validation of information quality.
- Imputation of the partial non-response.
- Interactive filtering and correction of inconsistent validated information.
- Development of the first stage of result analysis tables .
- Macroediting of the main aggregates in order to correct the non-detected errors in the previous microfiltering stage.
- Creation of the final data file.
- Obtaining final result tables in the unit responsible for these statistics, developed using the final data file
Among the main strengths of these statistics are the following:
1) Collection, analysis and publishing of results in a fast way, so the latter are published within the following 11 months after the reference period. (*)
(*) Exceptionally, the data for 2013 was published 13 months after the end of the reference period.
2) Since these statistics are carried out since 1973, the data can be exhaustively monitored so the possible inconsistencies they may have can be detected and a temporary series consistent in time may be obtained.
3) In the last years an effort has been made to collect the information by means of online questionnaires, which makes filling them out easier.
4) Obtaining high response rates.
Among the users of the survey are the following:
· Ministries and other public institutions.
· Regional Administrations (Autonomous Communities, town councils...).
· Non-profit companies and institutions.
· Researchers and universities.
Each one of these users have different needs depending on the use they make of the information they require.
One of the important uses made by the users is the "Annual Report: Technology and Innovation in Spain" published by COTEC using the data provided by the INE. At international level, OECD compiles the annual publication Main Science and Technology Indicators, which collects R&D information at international level, and Eurostat periodically publishes information at European level.
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013 and 2016 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...
On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)
The Statistics regarding R&D activities meets all the requirements established in the national and international regulation regarding science and technology statistics.
Said statistics follow Regulation nº 995/2012 of the Commission of 26 October 2012. For this reason, the statistical information rate supplied is of 100%.
These statistics are designed to obtain a high level of reliability and accuracy of the data obtained.
The different processes that these statistics are subjected to, from its design to obtaining the final results (coverage, collection, error filtering, non-response imputation, etc.), are intended to obtain a greater degree of statistical reliability.
Given these statisticas are a census operation in the PNPI sector, there are no sampling errors.
During the entire statistical process, non-sampling errors are controlled. Two types of errors are examined:
Errors of congruence (very high variations with respect to last year, lack of mandatory data, incorrect sums, ...)
Errors of range (invalid valor of variables)
There is also specific information on the non-response rate.
A3 (Non-response rate) = 9,09%
The data on these statistics will be published at the end of the year that follows the reference year of the information.
T2 (time interval until the final data is published) = 11 months
Data is disseminated following the INE statistics availability calendar, which is compiled and published each year.
The availability of a common methodology, design and process for collection, filtering, editing and elevation in all its geographical scope, guarantees comparability of the results among the different Autonomous Communities. Moreover, methodological adaptation to regulation nº 995/2012 of the Commision of 26 October 2012 makes it possible to compare with the rest of European Union member States.
The methodology applied since the implementation of these statistics, alongside the Frascati Manual, allows its comparability throughout time.
However, it shall be taken into account that in 2001 there is a break in the series due to the incorporation of occasional R&D in the measurement of internal R&D activities, being 2001 the link year. To date, the measurement of internal R&D activity only included continuous R&D. Backcasting has not been performed in order to link both series, but the 2001 data was published following both criteria so as to carry out the link.
The number of comparable elements in the temporary series of the expenditure and personnel variables in R&D is 12.
It shall also be taken into account that due to the revision of the 2002 Frascati Manual, the field covered by this sector has decreased noticeably.
The data collected by these statistics does not allow comparison with other domains or fields due to their absence.
Regarding the different sectors (Companies, Autonomous Communities, Higher Education, PNPI) for which the INE collects information, the data provided by the statistical operation of the PNPI Sector is coherent with the statistics of the rest of sectors, since the standardised international regulation of the Frascati Manual, which is used at international level, is implemented in each one of them.
Coherence is essential for the approach of the methodology of these statistics as well as in all of their development. Coherence among variables is compared in all the stages of the statistical process.
These statistics are 100% coherent at internal level (for example, the arithmetic and accounting identities are observed)
The estimate for the necessary budget appropriation to finance the Statistics regarding R&D activities (companies, Public Administration, higher education and PNPI) included in the 2018 Annual Program is 598,82 thousand euros.
The use of online questionnaires has been implemented so as to make filling them out easier and decrease the response burden.
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).
This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow: routine revision- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-; more extensive revision- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and exceptional revision- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.
On Statistics on R & D, there are only extraordinary revisions which are due to errors detected once the data has been published.
There has been no situation which would lead to the revision of data, both methodological as extraordinary items.
The data is obtained using the questionnaires sent by the units that are considered PNPI.
In order to confirm that they are indeed PNPIs and they do not belong to another sector (companies, Public Administration, higher education) the decision tree of the Frascati Manual is included in the first question of the questionnaire.
Data is collected once a year, from Abril to September.
Whereas OECD and Eurostat recommend collecting R&D data in odd reference years, some countries, like Spain, have done so annually.
The method to collect information is via e-mail. Firstly, an Excel questionnaire, a presentation letter and the instructions are sending to everyone from e-mail address firstname.lastname@example.org. Statistical units sector must fill in the questionnaire and send it to the same e-mail address, and the participation of telephone interviewers. Once the questionnaire is received, the respondent may be contacted via telephone or e-mail to clarify doubts and/or correct errors in the questionnaire.
The initial stage of statistical information processing, occurs at the same time the information is being collected, and it is developed simultaneously during the time it lasts. The created system focuses on the following essential aspects: a continuous updating process; questionnaire contents filtering, which is integrated in the recording.
Questionnaire recording and filtering are carried out continuously by the unit responsible for these statistics, following the necessary control regulations to guarantee an appropriate quality level during the entire process. This allows monitoring, already in this stage, errors that may affect the data obtained from the respondent units.
Once the data received from the respondent units is computerised, information coverage is monitored, so as to guarantee the data is completely recorded, detect information copied more than once and coverage errors, and at the same time, carry out an initial assessment of the quality of the variables collected in the questionnaires. This stage is carried out before the complete file of these statistics is developed, that is, before the information is treated as a whole.
During the microfiltering process, errors and inconsistencies in the variables of each register are detected and filtered, and content errors are filtered and imputed. Imputations and content errors are not carried out automatically but the parameters used for their calculation are indeed calculated automatically.
During the macrofiltering stage, different analysis tables are obtained, which allow detecting and eliminating non-detected errors and inconsistencies in the macrofilter (sector change, type of investigation, scientific discipline).
Given the annual nature of these statistics, no seasonal adjustments are carried out.