The data from the Survey reflects the dual perspective considered in tourism research: from the demand perspective, information is offered regarding travellers, overnight stays and average stay, distributed by country of residence in the case of travellers who are not resident in Spain, and by Autonomous Community of origin in the case of Spanish travellers. From the supply perspective, data is provided regarding estimated bedplaces and holiday dwellings, occupancy rates, as well as information on employment in the sector.
This information is offered monthly at the national level, by Autonomous Community, provinces with the highest number of overnight stays, as well as the most statistically significant tourist areas and sites.
These are the holiday dwellings and companies operating holiday dwellings, registered as such in the corresponding Tourism Boards of each Autonomous Community.
This studies the establishments and/or operating companies within the national territory.
The geographical scope includes the entire national territory, except for Ceuta and Melilla, where there are no establishments of this type.
The information is presented on different levels of geographical breakdown: national, Autonomous Community, provincial, tourist areas (group of municipalities) and tourist sites (municipalities).
The Holiday Dwelling Occupancy Survey was carried out for the first time in 2000, and therefore, the year 2000 is the base year
Guests, Overnight stays, Days, Persons, Expressed as a percentage, Apartments, Bedplaces, Rates
The compilation and dissemination of the data are governed by the Statistical Law No. 12/1989 "Public Statistical Function" of May 9, 1989, and Law No. 4/1990 of June 29 on “National Budget of State for the year 1990" amended by Law No. 13/1996 "Fiscal, administrative and social measures" of December 30, 1996, makes compulsory all statistics included in the National Statistics Plan. The National Statistical Plan 2009-2012 was approved by the Royal Decree 1663/2008. It contains the statistics that must be developed in the four year period by the State General Administration's services or any other entity dependent on it. All statistics included in the National Statistics Plan are statistics for state purposes and are obligatory. The National Statistics Plan 2017-2020, approved by Royal Decree 410/2016, of 31 October, is the Plan currently implemented. This statistical operation has governmental purposes, and it is included in the National Statistics Plan 2017-2020. (Statistics of the State Administration).
These statistics comply with European Parliament and Council Regulation (EC) no. 692/2011, of 6 July 2011, regarding tourism statistics. The Spanish version of the European Union regulations affecting this operation is available at: http://www.ine.es/normativa/leyes/UE/minine.htm#30236
Due to statistical secrecy, those provinces with fewer than 3 establishments/holiday dwelling companies are concealed, as are those with fewer than 4 establishments/holiday dwelling companies, due to significance.
The results of the survey are disseminated through the INE website, and some results are included in publications such as the Statistical Yearbook, INE Figures, etc. Each month, a press release is prepared, and includes the following operations: HDOS, COS, RTAOS, HDPI, TCPI and RTAPI.
INEbase is the system the INE uses to store statistical information on the Internet. It contains all the information the INE produces in electronic formats. The primary organisation of the information follows the theme-based classification of the Inventory of Statistical Operations of the State General Administration . The basic unit of INEbase is the statistical operation, defined as the set of activities that lead to obtaining statistical results on a determined sector or subject based on the individually collected data. Also included in the scope of this definition are synthesis preparation.
The specific link for the Holiday Dwelling Occupancy Survey is: http://www.ine.es/dyngs/INEbase/en/operacion.htm?c=Estadistica_C&cid=1254736176962&menu=resultados&idp=1254735576863 The indicator used is AC2 (number of hits on the online database) = 60,969
The microdata is not disseminated.
Moreover, non-continuous requests are also received, which at times become continuous or are extended. The policy for tending to tailor-made requests consists of analysing whether the conditions of statistical secrecy and significance are observed. After this analysis, a viability report is prepared and sent to the petitioner.
The methodology contains information regarding the questionnaires, linking coefficients, variation coefficients, estimators, XML collection method, treatment of partial non-response, definitions and sample. The document may be viewed at the following link: http://www.ine.es/en/daco/daco42/ocupacam/notaeoac_en.htm
Fields 10.6 to 17 of this document may be considered the quality report intended for users for this operation.
Based on European Parliament and Council Regulation 692/2001, the European Commission (Eurostat) assesses the quality of the transferred data and publishes reports on the quality of European statistics. To this end, each country provides a quality report within the 9 months following the end of the year. The link is as follows:
The Holiday Dwelling Occupancy Survey periodically performs revision activities of the statistical process, in order to comply with the quality conditions required at both the national and international levels. The main activities are the revision of both the data collected and the survey directory, as well as a microfiltering upon receipt of the data and a subsequent macrofiltering. Improvement in the data collection systems (XML).
As shown in the following sections, which include detailed quality indicators, the HDOS presents very high quality, with data from the operation being made available within a 30-day period. Total non-response is usually approximately 10.5% for provisional data, and 3% for definitive data, and the variation coefficients take values around 2 for the main variables. Periodical updates of the directory, and improvements to the data collection system, are carried out, such as the introduction of the collection via XML files. Lastly, the Eurostat Methodology regarding tourism surveys is also followed: Methodological Manual for Tourism Statistics, available at the following link: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/tourism/methodology/manuals-and-guidelines
Users are quite varied: tourism boards/consortiums, individuals, establishments, consultancy companies, Autonomous Community governments, municipal councils, universities, associations of accommodation businesspersons. The data they receive is used for analyses, studies, reports and policy design. User needs that are not met are those that do not comply with the conditions of statistical secrecy and significance. In addition to the information available on the website, users may also request data for time periods other than those published, and for special areas, which are provided by carrying out customised calculations.
The INE has carried out general user satisfaction surveys in 2007, 2010, 2013 and 2016 and it plans to continue doing so every three years. The purpose of these surveys is to find out what users think about the quality of the information of the INE statistics and the extent to which their needs of information are covered. In addition, additional surveys are carried out in order to acknowledge better other fields such as dissemination of the information, quality of some publications...
On the INE website, in its section Methods and Projects / Quality and Code of Practice / INE quality management / User surveys are available surveys conducted to date.(Click next link)
The HDOS meets all of the requirements set out in the international regulations relating to tourism statistics, European Parliament and Council Regulation 692/2011, from the supply perspective. 100% of the information requested by the Regulation is supplied.
The estimators used are unbiased, and therefore, the bias is null. Variation coefficients are available for the main variables, travellers and overnight stays. With regard to non-sampling errors, we try to minimise both coverage errors and total non-response errors. For more information, the methodology for this survey may be viewed the following link: http://www.ine.es/en/daco/daco42/ocupacam/notaeoac_en.htm
In order to measure the precision of this statistical operation, there are variation coefficients for the traveller and overnight stay variables, differentiating between residents in Spain and residents abroad. The values of the variation coefficients may be viewed at the following link:
The estimators used are unbiased, and therefore, the bias is null. Among non-sampling errors, coverage errors are minimised by periodically carrying out crosses between the Autonomous Community directories and the HDOS directory, in order to find potential duplicates, establishments that are missing or that are out of business. Total non-response is minimised between the provisional data and the final data, due to the re-contact with the units that did not answer, and in addition, an imputation of data is performed for these cases. Among the non-sampling errors, there is information available regarding non-response, with the non-response rate in 2016, definitive data, being A3 = 3.11.
The time that elapses from the reference date of the data to the publication of the provisional figures is 30 days, whereas for the final data, it is one year and one month for the months from January to May, and the final data from the remaining months is published in June. That is, in April 2016, the provisional data for March 2016 is published, as well as the final data for March 2015, and in June 2016, the final data for 2015 that has not previously been disseminated is published.
Each publication has been disseminated on the date announced in the publication calendar. The calendar may be viewed at the following link: http://www.ine.es/en/daco/daco41/calen_en.htm
The availability of a methodology, a design and a common process for the collection, filtering, editing and elevation for the entire geographical scope, guarantees the comparability of the results among the different Autonomous Communities, provinces, tourist areas and tourist sites. On the other hand, the methodological adaptation to Regulation 692/2011 makes comparability possible with the rest of the European Union countries.
As of 2000, linking coefficients have been used for directory updates or methodological changes on multiple occasions, for the purpose of the data series being comparable over time. For further information regarding the linking coefficients: http://www.ine.es/en/daco/daco42/ocupapar/coeficientes_enlace_en.htm. In December 2017, the series has 2016 elements.
Though the variables gathered in this survey are not collected in any other survey, a coherence is observed between the values obtained and the evolution of the economy.
The data has complete internal coherence, as it is based on the same set of microdata, and is calculated using the same estimation methods for the different breakdowns. The arithmetic and accounting identities are observed in the production of the data sets.
The estimation of the budgetary credit necessary to finance the Tourist Accommodation Occupancy Survey (hotels, holiday dwellings, tourist campsites, rural tourism accommodation and hostels) set out in the 2018 Annual Programme comes to a total of 4,606.05 thousand euros.
There is a means of collection, using XML files, for the purpose of reducing the response burden, as the information is collected directly from the management systems of the establishments, with it not being necessary for respondents to fill out the questionnaire, thus reducing the time that the establishment dedicates to responding to the questionnaire.
The INE of Spain has a policy which regulates the basic aspects of statistical data revision, seeking to ensure process transparency and product quality. This policy is laid out in the document approved by the INE board of directors on 13 March of 2015, which is available on the INE website, in the section "Methods and projects/Quality and Code of Practice/INE’s Quality management/INE’s Revision policy" (link).
This general policy sets the criteria that the different type of revisions should follow: routine revision- it is the case of statistics whose production process includes regular revisions-; more extensive revision- when methodological or basic reference source changes take place-; and exceptional revision- for instance, when an error appears in a published statistic-.
The revision policy is as follows: once the results are published in t+30, more questionnaires from the reference month are received, and therefore, the final version of the results presents greater coverage (increasing from a response rate of 89% in the provisional results to a rate of 97% in the final results). In June each year, a publication is disseminated, which is more detailed than the monthly publication, of the data from the previous year. This publication is final. Though from January to May, the same day that the provisional results from the reference month are published, the final results from the same month the previous year are also disseminated.
Each month, the provisional data from the previous month, and the final data from the previous month the previous year, are published, up until the month of June, in which all of the final data from the previous year that has not previously been disseminated is published. The quality indicators used are MAR, absolute average revision, and RMAR, relative average revision, which is obtained for the main variables, travellers and overnight stays. The average annual values in 2016 are: MAR travellers = 10528, MAR overnight stays =27671, RMAR travellers = 0.0004, RMAR overnight stays = 0.0004.
The INE compiles a national directory of holiday dwellings, using the records sent by the Tourism Boards of the Autonomous Communities. This directory contains the following information for each establishment: name, address, category, opening period, number of holiday dwellings and capacity thereof.
A stratified sampling is used, by province and size.
The collection methods are: CAWI, post, fax, e-mail, automatic data collection via XML. The information in the questionnaires is collected and filtered in a decentralised fashion, and the XML information is collected in a centralised fashion. The questionnaire collects information regarding a fortnight. The XML file collects information regarding all the days of the month. The questionnaire is updated annually, with the new countries in the EU.
The procedure for supervising the data validation consists of applying a series of validations to the questionnaires. In the event that any inconsistency is detected, the INE contacts the establishment again. When all of the data has been collected, it is revised again in a centralised fashion. In the files received by XML, the validation is performed at the time that the data is sent to the INE; if the validations are not verified by the data, the upload is not carried out in the database. Lastly, a macrofiltering is performed.
Firstly, there is a decentralised microfiltering process to detect and filter errors and inconsistencies in the questionnaires. Next, on a central level, the data is linked to that of the XML files, and the estimators are obtained. Subsequently, a macrofiltering is performed, prior to the tabulation and dissemination of the results.